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Full text of "Demoniality; or, Incubi and succubi; a treatise wherein is shown that there are in existence on earth rational creatures besides man, endowed like him with a body and a soul, that are born and die like him, redeemed by Our Lord Jesus-Christ, and capable of receiving salvation or damnation"

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Incubi  and  Succubi 

BY    THE    UEV.    FATHER 


(17*''  century) 

Now  first  translated  into  English 
With  the  Latin  Text 

eN  T  lA.  Oo'>-s 

Isidore  LISEUX,  -.  Rue  Bonaparte 






A  Treatise 
wherein  is  shown   that   there  are  in  existence   on 
earth  rational  creatures  besides  man,  endowed  like 
him  with  a  body  and  a  soul,  that  are  born  and  die 
like  him,  redeemed  by  our  Lord  Jesus-Christ,  and 
capable  of  receiving  salvation  or  damnation, 
By  the  Rev.  Father 
''     ~      (17th  century) 
Published  from   the    original    Latin    manuscript 
discovered  in  London  in  the  year  1872, 
and  translated  into  French  by  Isidore  Liseux 
Now   first  translated  into  English 
With  the  Latin  Text. 


Isidore  LISEUX,  2,  Rue  Bonaparte. 

13  fiSSC 




•»••     *  '■I  I       ".* 


TO    THE    FIRST    EDITION    [Pat'lS ,     1 87 5,    171-8°) 

was  in  London  in  the  year  1872, 
and  I  hunted  after  old  books  : 

Car  que  /aire  Id  bus,  d  moins  qu'on  ne 
bouquine  ?  ( i ) 

They  caused  me  to  live  in  past  ages,  happy 
to  escape  from  the  present,  and  to  exchange 
the  petty  passions  of  the  day  for  the  peaceable 
intimacy  of  Aldus,  Dolet  or  Estienne. 

One  of  my  favourite  booksellers  was  Mr 
Allen,  a  venerable  old  gentleman,  whose  place 
of  business  was  in  the  Euston  road,  close  to  the 
gate  of  Regent's  park.  Not  that  his  shop  was 
particularly  rich  in  dusty  old  books;  quite  the 

(I)  What  can  one  do  over  there,  unless  he  hunts  up 
old  books? 


—  VI  — 

reverse  :  it  was  small,  and  yet  never  filled. 
Scarcely  four  or  five  hundred  volumes  at  a 
time,  carefully  dusted,  bright,  arrayed  with 
symmetry  on  shelves  within  reach  of  one's 
hand;  the  upper  shelves  remained  unoccupied. 
On  the  right,  Theology;  on  the  left,  the  Greek 
and  Latin  Classics  in  a  majority,  with  some 
French  and  Italian  books;  for  such  were 
Mr  Allen's  specialties  ;  it  seemed  as  if  he  ab- 
solutely ignored  Shakespeare  and  Byron,  and 
as  if,  in  his  mind,  the  literature  of  his  country 
did  not  go  beyond  the  sermons  of  Blair  or 

What,  at  first  sight,  struck  one  most  in 
those  books,  was  the  moderateness  of  their 
price,  compared  with  their  excellent  state  of 
preservation.  They  had  evidently  not  been 
bought  in  a  lot,  at  so  much  a  cubic  yard,  like 
the  rubbish  of  an  auction,  and  yet  the  hand- 
somest, the  most  ancient,  the  most  venerable 
from  their  size,  folios  or  quartos,  were  not 
marked  higher  than  2  or  3  shillings ;  an  oc- 
tavo was  sold  I  shilling,  the  duodecimo  six 
pence  :  each  according  to  its  size.  Thus 
ruled  Mr  Allen,  a  methodical  man,  if  ever 
there  was  one;  and  he  was  all  the  better  for 
it,  since,  faithfully  patronized  by  clergymen, 
scholars  and  collectors,  he  renewed  his  stock 
at  a  rate  which  more  assuming  speculators 
might  have  envied. 

—    VII    — 

But  how  did  he  get  those  well  bound  and 
well  preserved  volumes,  forwhich,  everywhere 
else,  five  or  six  times  more  would  have  been 
charged  ?  Here  also  Mr  Allen  had  his  method, 
sure  and  regular.  No  one  attended  more  assi- 
duously the  auctions  which  take  place  every 
day  in  London  :  his  stand  was  marked  at  the 
foot  of  the  auctioneer's  desk.  The  rarest, 
choicest  books  passed  before  his  eyes,  con- 
tended for  at  often  fabulous  prices  by  Qua- 
ritch,  Sotheran,  Pickering,  Toovey,  and  other 
bibliopolists  of  the  British  metropolis;  Mr  Allen 
smiled  at  such  extravagance ;  when  once  a  bid 
had  been  made  by  another,  he  would  not 
add  a  penny,  had  an  unknown  Gutenberg  or 
Valdarfer's  Boccaccio  been  at  stake.  But  if  oc- 
casionally, through  inattention  or  weariness, 
competition  slackened  [habent  sua  fata  libelli), 
Mr  Allen  came  forward  :  six  pence!,  he  whis- 
pered, and  sometimes  the  article  was  left  him  ; 
sometimes  even,  two  consecutive  numbers, 
joined  together  for  want  of  having  separately 
met  with  a  buyer,  were  knocked  down  to  him, 
still  for  the  minimum  of  six  pence  which  was 
his  maximum. 

Many  of  those  slighted  ones  doubtless  de- 
served their  fate ;  but  among  them  might 
slip  some  that  were  not  unworthy  of  the  ho- 
nours of  the  catalogue,  and  which,  at  any  other 
time,  buyers  more  attentive,  or  less  whimsical 

—  via  — 

might  perhaps  have  covered  with  gold.  This, 
however,  did  not  at  all  enter  into  Mr  Allen's 
calculation  :  the  size  was  the  only  rule  of  his 

Now,  one  day  when,  after  a  considerable 
auction,   he  had    exhibited  in  his  shop  pur- 
chases more  numerous  than  usual,  I  especially 
noticed  some    manuscripts    in  the  Latin  lan- 
guage, the  paper,  the  writing  and  the  binding 
of  which  denoted  an  Italian  origin,  and  which 
might  well  be  two   hundred  years  old.  The 
title  of  one  was,   I   believe  :   De  Venenis ;  of 
another  :  De  Viperis;  of  a  third  (the  present 
work)  :  De  Dcemonialitate,  et  Incubis,  et  Sue- 
cubis.  All  three,   moreover,  by  different  au- 
thors, and  independent  of  each  other.  Poisons, 
adders,  demons,  what  a  collection  of  horrors! 
yet,  were  it  but  for  civility's  sake,  I  was  bound 
to  buy  something ;  after  some   hesitation,  I 
chose  the  last  one  :  Demons,  true,  but  Incubi, 
Succubi  :  the  subject  is  not  vulgar,  and  still 
less  so  the  way  in  which  it  seemed  to  me  to 
have  been  handled.   In  short,  I  had  the  vo- 
lume for  six-pence,  a  boon  price  for  a  quarto  : 
Mr  Allen  doubtless  deemed  such  a  scrawl  be- 
neath the  rate  of  type. 

That  manuscript,  on  strong  paper  of  the 
lytJi  century,  bound  in  Italian  parchment, 
and  beautifully  preserved,  has  86  pages  of  text. 
The  title  and  first  page  are  in  the  author's 

—    IX    — 

hand,  that  of  an  old  man  ;  the  remainder  is 
very  distinctly  written  by  another,  but  under 
his  direction,  as  is  testified  by  autographic 
side  notes  and  rectifications  distributed  all 
through  the  work.  It  is  therefore  the  genuine 
original  manuscript,  to  all  appearances  unique 
and  inedited. 

Our  dealer  in  old  books  had  purchased  it  a 
few  days  before  at  Sotheby's  House,  where  had 
taken  place  (from  the  6th  to  the  16^^  of  De- 
cember 1871)  the  sale  of  the  books  of  baron 
Seymour  Kirkup,  an  English  collector,  deceas- 
ed in  Florence.  The  manuscript  was  inscri- 
bed as  follows  on  the  sale  catalogue  : 

No  145.  Ameno  (  R.  P.  Ludovicus  Maria  [Cotta]  de\ 
De  Daemonialitate,  et  Incubis,  et  Succubis,  Manuscript. 

Who  is  that  writer?  Has  he  left  printed 
works?  That  is  a  question  I  leave  to  biblio- 
graphers; for,  notwithstanding  numerous  in- 
vestigations in  special  dictionaries,  I  have  been 
unable  to  ascertain  any  thing  on  that  score. 
Brunet  [Manuel  du  libraire^  art.  Cotta  d!A- 
meno)  vaguely  surmises  his  existence,  but 
confuses  him  with  his  namesake,  most  likely 
also  his  fellow-townsman ,  Lazaro  Agostino 
Cotta  of  Ameno,  a  barrister  and  literary  man  of 
Novara.  a  The  author,  »  says  he,  «  whose  real 
Christian  names  would  seem  to  be  Ludovico- 
Mariaj  has  written  many  serious  works..    >» 


—  X   — 

The  mistake  is  obvious.  One  thing  is  sure  : 
our  author  was  living  in  the  last  years  of  the 
lytii  century,  as  appears  from  his  own  testi- 
mony, and  had  been  a  professor  of  Theology 
in  Pavia. 

Be  that  as  it  may,  his  book  has  seemed  to 
me  most  interesting  in  divers  respects,  and  I 
confidently  submit  it  to  that  select  public  for 
whom  the  invisible  world  is  not  a  chimera. 
I  should  be  much  surprised  if,  after  opening  it 
at  random,  the  reader  was  not  tempted  to  re- 
trace his  steps  and  go  on  to  the  end.  The  phi- 
losopher, the  confessor,  the  medical  man  will 
find  therein,  in  conjunction  with  the  robust 
faith  of  the  middle  ages,  novel  and  ingenious 
views;  the  literary  man,  the  curioso,  will  ap- 
preciate the  solidity  of  reasoning,  the  clear- 
ness of  style,  the  liveliness  of  recitals  (for 
there  are  stories,  and  delicately  told).  All 
theologians  have  devoted  more  or  less  pages 
to  the  question  of  material  intercourse  between 
man  and  the  demon;  thick  volumes  have  been 
written  about  witchcraft,  and  the  merits  of 
this  work  were  but  slender  if  it  merely  deve- 
loped the  ordinary  thesis ;  but  such  is  not  its 
characteristic.  The  ground-matter ,  from 
which  it  derives  a  truly  original  and  philoso- 
phical stamp,  is  an  entirely  novel  demonstra- 
tion of  the  existence  of  Incubi  and  Succubi,  as 
rational  animals,  both  corporeal  and  spiritual 

like  ourselves,  living  in  our  midst,  being  born 
and  dying  like  us,  and'  lastly  redeemed,  as  we 
are,  through  the  merits  of  Jesus-Christ,  and 
capable  of  receiving  salvation  or  damnation. 
In  the  Father  of  Ameno's  opinion,  those 
beings  endowed  with  senses  and  reason,  tho- 
roughly distinct  from  Angels  and  Demons, 
pure  spirits,  are  none  other  but  the  Fauns, 
Sylvans  and  Satyrs  of  paganism,  continued  by 
our  Sylphs,  Elfs  and  Goblins;  and  thus  is  con- 
nected anew  the  link  of  belief.  On  this  score 
alone,  not  to  mention  the  interest  of  details, 
this  book  has  a  claim  to  the  attention  of  ear- 
nest readers  :  I  feel  convinced  that  attention 
will  not  be  found  wanting. 

I.  L. 

May  1875. 

The  foregoing  advertisement  was  composed 
at  the  printer's,  and  ready  for  the  press,  when, 
strolling  on  the  quays  (i),  I  met  by  chance 
with  a  copy  of  the  Index  librovum  prohibitO' 
rum.  I  mechanically  opened  it,  and  the  first 

(i)  Paris  Embankment. 

~   XII  — 

thing  that  struck  my  eyes  was  the  following 
article  : 

De  Ameno  Ludovicus  Maria.  Vide  Sinistrari. 

My  heart  throbbed  fast,  I  must  confess.  Was  I 
at  last  on  the  trace  of  my  author  V  Was  it  Demo- 
niality  that  I  was  about  to  see  nailed  to  the 
pillory  of  the  Index?  I  flew  to  the  last  pages 
of  the  formidable  volume,  and  read  : 

Sinistrari  (Ludovicus  Maria)  de  Ameno,  De  Delictis  et 
Poenis  Tractatus  absolutissimus.  Donee  corrigatur. 
Deeret.  4  Martii  1709. 

Correctus  autem  juxta  editionem  Romanam  anni  1753 

It  was  indeed  he.  The  real  name  of  the 
Father  of  Ameno  was  Sinistrari^  and  I  was 
in  possession  of  the  title  of  one  at  least  of  those 
«c  serious  works  »  which  Brunet  the  biblio- 
grapher alluded  to.  The  very  title,  De  Delictis 
et  Poenis,  was  not  unconnected  with  that  of 
my  manuscript,  and  I  had  reason  to  presume 
that  Demoniality  was  one  of  the  offenses  in- 
quired into,  and  decided  upon,  by  Father  Sini- 
strari; in  other  words,  that  manuscript,  to  all 
appearances  inedited,  was  perhaps  published 
in  the  extensive  work  revealed  to  me ;  perhaps 
even  was  it  to  that  monography  of  Demoniality 
that  the  Tractatus  de  Delictis  et  Poenis  owed 
its  condemnation  by  the  Congregation  of  the 
Index.  All  those  points  required  looking  into. 

—    XllI    — 

But  it  is  necessary  to  have  attempted  inves- 
tigations of  that  kind  in  order  to  appreciate 
the  difficulties  thereof.  I  consulted  the  cata- 
logues of  ancient  books  that  came  in  my  way; 
I  searched  the  back-shops  of  the  dealers  in  old 
books,  the  antiquaries,  as  they  say  in  Ger- 
many, addressing  especially  to  the  two  or  three 
firms  who  in  Paris  apply  themselves  to  old 
Theology;  I  wrote  to  the  principal  booksellers 
in  London,  Milan,  Florence,  Rome,  Naples  : 
all  to  no  purpose ;  the  very  name  of  Father 
Sinistrari  of  Ameno  seemed  to  be  unknown.  I 
should  perhaps  have  begun  by  enquiring  at 
our  National  Library ;  I  was  obliged  to  resort 
to  it,  and  there  at  least  I  obtained  an  incipient 
gratification.  I  was  shown  two  works  by  my 
author  :  a  quarto  of  1704,  De  incorrigibilium 
expiilsione  ab  Ordinibus  Regularibiis,  and  the 
first  tome  of  a  set  of  his  complete  works  : 
R.  P.  Ludovici  Mavice  Sinistrari  de  Ameno 
Opera  omnia  [Romce,  in  domo  Caroli  Giannini, 
1753-1754,  3  vol.  in-folio).  Unfortunately  that 
first  tome  contained  but  the  Practica  Crimi- 
nalis  Minorum  illustrata;  De  Delictis  et  Poenis 
was  the  subject  matter  of  the  third  tome,  which, 
as  well  as  the  second,  was  missing  at  the 

Yet,  I  had  a  positive  indication,  and  I  pursued 
my  investigations.  I  might  be  more  fortunate 
at  the  Library  of  St  Sulpice  Seminary.  True, 

•^    XIV    — 

it  is  not  open  to  the  public ;  but  then,  the 
Sulpician  Fathers  are  hospitable  :  did  they  not 
of  yore  afford  a  refuge  to  repentant  Des  Grieux, 
and  did  not  Manon  Lescaut  herself  tread  the 
flags  of  their  parlour?!  therefore  ventured  into 
ihe  holy  House  ;  it  was  half  past  twelve,  dinner 
was  nearly  over;  I  asked  for  the  librarian,  and 
after  a  few  minutes,  I  saw  coming  to  me  a 
short  old  man,  unexceptionably  civil,  who, 
leading  me  through  the  common  parlour,  in- 
troduced me  into  another  much  narrower,  a 
mere  cell,  looking  into  a  gallery  and  glazed  full 
breadth,  being  thus  exposed  to  every  eye.  An 
ingenious  provision  of  which  Des  Grieux's 
escape  had  fully  shown  the  urgency.  I  had  no 
small  trouble  in  explaining  the  object  of  my 
visit  to  the  good  Father,  who  was  deaf  and 
near  sighted'.  He  left  me  to  go  to  the  library, 
and  soon  returned,  but  empty  handed:  there 
also,  in  that  sanctuary  of  Catholic  Theology, 
Father  Sinistrari  of  Ameno  was  entirely 
unknown.  But  one  more  expedient  could  I  try  : 
namely,  to  go  to  his  brothers  in  St  Francis, 
the  Capuchin  Fathers,  in  their  convent  of  rue 
de  la  Santel  A  cruel  extremity,  it  will  be  grant- 
ed, for  I  had  but  little  chance  of  meeting  there, 
as  here,  the  lovely  shadow  of  Manon. 

At  last  a  letter  from  Milan  put  an  end  to 
my  perplexity.  The  unfindable  book  was 
found  ;  I  received  at  the  same  time  the  first 

—  XV  ■— 

edition  of  De  Delictis  et  Pcenis  {Venetiis,  apud 
Hieronymum  Albricium,  1700),  and  the  edition 
of  Rome,  1754. 

It  was  a  complete  treatise,  tractatus  absolu- 
tissimus,  upon  all  imaginable  crimes,  offenses 
and  sins  ;  but,  let  us  hasten  to  say,  in  both 
those  voluminous  folios,  Demoniality  occupies 
scarcely  five  pages,  without  any  difference  in 
the  text  between  the  two  editions.  And  those 
five  pages  are  not  even  a  summary  of  the  ma- 
nuscript work  which  I  now  give  forth ;  they 
only  contain  the  proposition  and  conclusion 
(N's  I  to  27  and  112  to  11  5).  As  for  that  whe- 
rein lies  the  originality  of  the  book,  to  wit  the 
theory  of  rational  animals,  Incubi  and  Succubi, 
endowed  like  ourselves  with  a  body  and  soul, 
and  capable  of  receiving  salvation  and  damna- 
tion, it  were  vain  to  look  for  it. 

Thus,  after  so  many  endeavours,  I  had  set- 
tled all  the  points  which  I  had  intended  to 
elucidate  :  I  had  discovered  the  identity  of  the 
Father  of  Ameno(i);  from  the  comparison  of 
the  two  editions  of  De  Delictis  et  Pcenis,  the 
first  condemned,  the  second  allowed  by  the 
Congregation  of  the  Index,  I  had  gathered  that 
the  printed  fragments  of  Demoniality  had 
nothing  to  do  v/ith  the  condemnation  of  the 

(i)  Vide  biographical  notice  at  the  end  of  this  vo- 

book,  since  they  had  not  been  submitted  to 
any  correction;  lastly,  I  had  become  convinced 
that,  save  a  few  pages,  my  manuscript  was 
absolutely  inedited.  A  happy  event  of  a  biblio- 
graphical Odyssey  which  I  shall  be  excused  for 
relating  at  length,  for  the  «  jollification  »  of 
bibliophiles  «  and  none  other  ». 

Isidore  Liseux. 

August  1875. 



•Sf     'Jr^.^y    '  .y 


jocABULUM  Deemonialitatis  jpnmo 
inventum  reperio  a  Jo.  Cara^ 
miiele  in  sua  Theologia  funda- 
mentali,  nee  ante  ilium  inveni 
Auctorem,  qui  de  hoc  crimine  tanquam 
distincto  a  Bestialitate  locutus  sit.  Omnes 
enim  Theologi  Morales,  secuti  D.  Thomam, 
2.2.,  q.  154.  in  Corp.,  sub  specie  Bestiali- 
tatis  recensent  omnem  concubitum  cum  re 
non  ejusdem  specie!,  ut  ibi  loquitur  D.  Tho^ 
mas ;  et  proinde  Cajetanus,  in  Commenta- 
rio  illius  qucestionis  et  articuli,  2.2.,  q,  154., 
ad  3.  dub.,  coitum  cum  Dcemone ponit  in 
specie  Bestialitatis ;  et  Cajetanum  sequitur 
Silvester,  v°  Luxuria,  £o«ac2«a,de  Matrim., 
q .  4.,  et  alii. 


first  author  who,  to  my 
lowledge,  invented  the  word 
>emoniality  is  John  Caramuel, 
in  his  Fundamental  Theology, 
and  befo/e  him  I  find  no  one  who  distin- 
guished that  crime  from  Bestiality.  Indeed, 
all  Theological  Moralists,  following  in  the 
train  ojf  S.  Thomas  (2,  2,  question  i54), 
include\under  the  specific  title  of  Bestia- 
lity, «  every  kind  of  carnal  intercourse 
with  anyihiiig  whatever  of  a  different 
species  »  :  such  are  the  very^vords  used  by 
S.  Thomas.  Cajetanus,  for  instance,  in  his 
commentary  on  that  questiori,  classes  in- 
tercourse with  the  Demon  uiider  the  des- 
cription of  Bestiality;  so  does  Sylvester,  de 

,*}.• ,  .•.••;  ,     DaemOijialitas 

2.  5e<i  rever<^  D.  Thomas  in  illo  loco  con- 
siderationem  nan  habiiit ad  coitiim  cum  Dce- 
mone  :  ut  enim  infra  probabimus,  hie  coitus 
non  potest  in  specie  specialissima  Bestiali- 
tatis  comprehendi ;  et  ut  veritati  cohcereat 
sententia  S.  Doctor  is,  dicendum  est,  quod 
in  citato  loco,  quando  ait ,  quod  peccatum 
contra  naturam,  alio  modo  si  fiat  per  con- 
cubitum  ad  rem  non  ejusdem  speciei,  vo- 
catur  Bestialitas  :  sub  nomine  rei  non  ejus- 
dem speciei  intellexerit  animal  vivens,  non 
ejusdem  speciei  cum  homine:  non  enim  usur- 
pare  potuit  ibi  nomen  rei  pro  re,  puta,  ente 
communi  ad  animatum  et  inanimatum  :  si 
enim  quis  ■.  coiret  cum  cadavere  humano, 
concubitum  haberet  ad  rem  non  ejusdem 
speciei  cum  homine  [maxime  apud  Thomis- 
tas,  qui  formam  corporeitatis  humance  ne- 
gant  in  cadavere),  quod  etiam  esset  si  cada- 
veri  bestiali  copularetur ;  et  tamen  talis 
coitus  non  esset  bestialitas,  sed  mollities. 
Voluit  igitur  ibi  D.  Thomas  prcecise  intel- 
ligere  concubitum  cum  re  vivente  non  ejus- 
dem speciei  cum  homine,  hoc  est  cum  bruto, 
nullo  autem  modo  comprehendere  voluit  coi- 
tum  cum  Dcemone. 

Demoniality  5 

Luxuria,  Bonacina,  de  Matrimonio,  ques- 
tion 4,  and  others. 

2.  However  it  is  clear  that  in  the  above 
passage  S.  Thomas  did  not  at  all  allude  to 
intercourse  with  the  Demon.  As  shall  be 
demonstrated  further  on,  that  intercourse 
cannot  be  included  in  the  very  particular 
species  of  Bestiality;  and,  in  order  to 
make  that  sentence  of  the  holy  Doctor 
tally  with  truth,  it  must  be  admitted  that 
when  saying  of  the  unnatural  sin,  «  that 
committed  through  intercourse  with  a  thing 
of  different  species,  it  takes  the  name  oj 
Bestiality  »,  S.  Thomas,  by  a  thing  of  dif- 
ferent species,  means  a  living  animal,  of 
another  species  than  man  :  for  he  could 
not  here  use  the  word  thing  in  its  most 
general  sensCj  to  mean  indiscriminately 
an  animate  or  inanimate  being.  In  fact,  if 
a  man  should  fornicate  cum  cadavere  hu- 
mano,  he  would  have  to  do  with  a  thing 
of  a  species  quite  different  from  his  own 
(especially  according  to  the  Thomists,  who 
deny  the  form  of  human  corporeity  in  a 
corpse);  similarly  si  cadaveri  bestiali copu- 
laretur  :  and  yet,  talis  coitus  would  not  be 
bestiality,  but  pollution.  What  therefore 
S.  Thomas  intended  here  to  specify  with 
-preciseness ,  is  carnal  intercourse  with  a 


3.  Coitus  igitur  cum  Dcemone,  sive  In- 
cubo,  sive  Siiccubo  [qui  proprie  est  Daemo- 
nialitas), specie  differt  a  Bestialitate ,  nee 
cum  eafacit  unam  speciem  specialissimam, 
ut  opinatus  est  Cajetanus  :  peccata  enim 
contra  naturam  specie  inter  se  distingui 
contra  opinionemnonnullorum  Antiquorum, 
et  Caramuelis,  Summ.,  Armill.,  v.  Luxur., 
M.  5.,  Jabien.,  eo.  v.  n.6.,  Asten.  lib.  2.  tit. 
46.  art.y.^  Caram.  Theol.fundam.;?05f  Fz7- 
liucium,  etCrespinum  a  Borgia,  est  opinio 
communis ;  et  contraria  est  damnata  in 
proposit.  24.  ex damnatis ab  Alexandro  VII.; 
tum  quia  singula  continent  peculiarem ,  et 
distinctam  turpitudinem  repugnantem  cas- 
titati,  et  humane^  generationi;  tum  quia 
quodlibet  ex  iis  privat  bono  aliquo  secundum 
naturam,  et  institutionem  actus  venerei , 
ordinati  ad  finem  generationis  human cp ; 
tum  quia  quodlibet  ipsorum  habet  diversum 
motivum,  per  se  sufficiens  ad  privandum 
eodem  bono  diversimode,  ut  optime  philoso- 
phatur  Filliuc,  tom.  i.e.  8.  tract.  3o.  q.  3. 
MO  142;  Cresp.,  q.  mor.  sel.  contro.;  Cara- 
muel.,  q.  5.  per  tot. 

Demoniality  7 

living  thing  of  a  species  different  from 
man,  that  is  to  say,  with  a  beast,  and  he 
never  in  the  least  thought  of  intercourse 
with  the  Demon. 

3.  Therefore,  intercourse  with  the  De- 
mon, whether  Incubus  or  Succabus  (which 
is,  properly  speaking,  Demoniality) ^di^Qvs 
in  kind  from  Bestiality,  and  does  not  in 
connexion  with  it  form  one  very  particular 
species, as  Cajetanus  wrongly  gives  it;  for, 
whatever  may  have  said  to  the  contrary 
some  Ancients,  and  later  Caramuel  in  his 
Fundamental  Theology,  unnatural  sins 
differ  from  each  other  most  distinctly.  Such 
at  least  is  the  general  doctrine,  and  the 
contrary  opinion  has  been  condemned  by 
Alexander  VII:  first,  because  each  of  those 
sins  carries  with  itself  its  peculiar  and 
distinct  disgrace,  repugnant  to  chastity 
and  to  human  generation;  secondly,  be- 
cause the  commission  thereof  entails  each 
time  the  sacrifice  of  some  good  by  its  nature 
attached  to  the  institution  of  the  venereal 
act,  the  normal  end  of  which  is  human 
generation;  lastly,  because  they  each  have 
a  different  motive  which  in  itself  is  suffi- 
cient to  bring  about,  in  divers  ways,  the 
deprivation  of  the  same  good,  as  has  been 


4.  Ex  his  autem  infertur,  quod  etiam 
Dcemonialitas  specie  differ t  a  Best ialit ate  : 
singula  enim  ipsarum  peculiar  em  et  dis- 
tinctam  turpitudinem,  castitati  ac  humance 
generationi  repugnantem,  involvit ;  siquidem 
Bestialitas  est  copula  cum  bruto  vivente , 
ac  sensibus  et  motii  propria  prcedito  :  Dce- 
monialitas  autem  est  commixtio  cum  cada- 
vere  {stando  in  sententia  communi,  quam 
infra  examinabimus ),  nee  sensum  ,  nee 
motum  vitalem  habente;  et  per  accidensest^ 
quod  a  Dcemone  moveatur.  Quod  si  immun- 
ditia  commissa  cum  brutali  cadavere,  vel 
humano,  differt  specie  a  Sodomia  et  Bestiali- 
tate^  ab  ista  differt  pariter  specie  etiam 
Daemonialitas,  in  qua,  juxta  communem 
sententiam,  homo  cum  cadavere  concumbit 
accidentaliter  moto. 

5.  Et  confirmatur  :  quia  in  peccatis  con- 
tra naturam,  seminatio  innaturalis  {hoc est ^ 
ea  ad  quam  regulariter  non  potest  sequi  ge- 
neratio)  habet  rationem  generis;  subjec- 
tum  vero  talis  seminationis  est  differentia 
constituens  species  [sub  tali  genere  :  unde  si 
seminatio  fiat  in  terram ,  aut  corpus  ina- 
nime,  est  mollities;  si  fiat  cum  homine  in 

Demoniality  9 

clearly  shown  by  Fillucius,  Grespinus  and 

4.  It  follows  that  Demoniality  differs  in 
kind  from  Bestiality,  for  each  has  its  pe- 
culiar and  distinct  disgrace,  repugnant  to 
chastity  and  human  generation.  Bestiality 
is  connexion  with  a  living  beast,  endowed 
with  its  own  peculiar  senses  and  impulses; 
Demoniality,  on  the  contrary,  is  copulation 
with  a  corpse  (according  at  least  to  the  ge- 
neral doctrine  which  shall  be  considered 
hereafter), a  senseless  and  motionless  corpse 
which  is  but  accidentally  moved  through 
the  power  of  the  Demon.  Now,  if  fornica- 
tion with  the  corpse  of  a  man,  a  woman, 
or  a  beast  differs  in  kind  from  Sodomy  and 
Bestiality,  there  is  the  same  difference  with 
regard  to  Z)emowi^//(>^,  which,  according  to 
general  opinion,  is  the  intercourse  of  man 
with  a  corpse  accidentally  set  in  motion. 

5.  Another  proof  :  in  sins  against  na- 
ture, the  unnatural  semination  (which 
cannot  be  regularly  followed  by  generation) 
is  a  genus;  but  the  object  of  such  semina- 
tion is  the  difference  which  marks  the 
species  under  the  genus.  Thus,  whether 
semination  takes  place  on  the  ground,  or 
on  an  inanimate  body,  it  is  pollution;   if 

10  Daemonialitas 

vase  prcepostero ,  est  Sodomia;  si  fiat  cum 
bruto,  est  bestialitas  :  quce  absque  contro- 
versia  inter  se  specie  differunt ,  eo  quod 
terra ,  seu  cadaver,  homo ,  et  brutum,  quce 
sunt  subjecta  talis  seminationis ,  specie  dif- 
ferunt inter  se.  Sed  Dcemon  a  bruto  non 
solum  differt  specie,  sed  plusquam  specie : 
differunt  enim  per  corporeum ,  et  incorpo- 
reum,  quce 'sunt  differentice  genericce.  Se- 
quitur  ergo  quod  seminationes  factce  cum 
aliis  differunt  inter  se  specie ,  quod  est  in- 

6.  Pariter,  trita  est  doctrina  Moralista- 
rumfundata  in  Tridentino,sess.  14,  c.  5.[D. 
Th.  in  4.  dist.  16.  q.  3.  art.  2.,  Vasque:^, 
q.  91.  art.  i.  dub.  2.  n.  6.,  Reginald.  Va- 
len!{.  Medin.  Zerola.  Pesant.  Sajir.  Sott, 
Pitig.  Henrique^  apud  Bonac.  de  Sac.  disp. 
5.  q.  5.  sect.  2.punct.  2.  {|  3.  diffic.  3.  n.  5., 
et  tradita  per  Theologos ,  quod  in  confes- 
sione  manifestandce  sint  tantum  circum- 
stantice  quce  mutant  speciem  peccatorum.  Si 
igitur  Dcemonialitas  et  Bestialitas  sunt  ejus- 
dem  speciei  specialissimce ,  sufficit  in  con- 
fessione  dicere :  Bestialitatis  peccatum  com- 
misi,    quantumvis  confitens  cum  Dcemone 

Demoniality  1 1 

cum  homine  in  vase  prcepostero^  it  is  So- 
domy; with  a  beast,  bestiality  :  crimes 
which  unquestionably  all  differ  from  each 
other  in  species,  just  as  the  ground,  the 
corpse,  the  man  and  the  beast,  passive 
objects  talis  seminationis,  differ  in  species 
from  each  other.  But  the  difference  between 
the  Demon  and  the  beast  is  not  only  spe- 
cific, it  is  more  than  specific  :  the  nature 
of  the  one  is  corporeal,  of  the  other  incor- 
poreal, which  makes  a  generic  difference. 
Whence  it  follows  that  seminationes  prac- 
tised on  different  objets  differ  in  species 
from  each  other  ;  and  that  is  substan- 

6.  It  is  also  a  trite  doctrine  with  Mora- 
lists, established  by  the  Council  of  Trent, 
session  14,  and  admitted  by  Theologians^ 
that  in  confession  it  suffices  to  state  the 
circumstances  which  alter  the  species  of 
sins.  If  therefore  Demoniality  and  Bestia- 
lity belonged  to  the  same  very  particular 
species,  it  would  be  enough  that^  each  time 
he  has  fornicated  with  the  Demon^  the 
penitent  should  say  to  his  confessor  :  / 
have  been  guilty  of  the  sin  of  Bestiality^ 
But  that  is  not  so :  therefore  those  two  sins 
do  not  both  belong  to  the  same  very  par- 
ticular species. 

12  Daemonialitas 

concubuerit.  Hoc  autem  falsum  est:  igitur 
non  sunt  ejusdem  speciei  specialissimce. 

7.  Quod  si  dicatur,  aperiendum  esse  in 
confessione  circumstantiam  concubitus  cum 
Dcemone  ratione  peccati  contra  Religio- 
nem  :  peccatum  contra  Religionem  com- 
mittitur,  aut  ex  cultu,  aut  ex  reverentia, 
aut  ex  deprecatione ,  aut  ex  pacto,  aut  ex 
societate  cum  Dcemone  [D.  Thomas,  2.  2. 
q.  90.  art.  1.  et  q.  95.  art.  4.  in  corp.);  sed, 
lit  infra  dicemus,  dantur  Succubi,  et  In- 
cubi,  quibus  nullum  prcedictorum  exhibe- 
tur,  et  tamen  copula  sequitur  :  igitur  re- 
spectu  istorum  nulla  intervenit  irreligio- 
sitas,  et  commixtio  cum  istis  nullam  habe- 
bit  rationem  ulteriorem,  quam  puri  et  sim- 
plicis  coitus,  qui,  si  est  ejusdem  speciei  cum 
Bestialitate,  sufficienter  exprimetur  dicendo: 
Bestialitatem  commisi;  quod  tamen  falsum 

8.  Ulterius  in  confesso  est  apud  omnes 
Theologos  Morales,  quod  longe  gravior 
est  copula  cum  Dcemone,  quam  cum  quoli- 
bet  bruto;  in  eadem  autem  specie  specialise 
sima  peccati,  non  datur  unum  peccatum 
gravius  alter 0,  sed  omnia  ceque gravia  sunt; 

Demoniality  1 3 

7.  It  may  be  urged  that  if  the  circum- 
stances of  a  sensual  intercourse  with  the 
Demon  should  be  revealed  to  the  Confes- 
sor, it  is  on  account  of  its  offense  against 
Religion,  an  oifense  which  comes  either 
from  the  worship  rendered  to  the  Demon, 
or  from  the  homage  or  prayers  offered  up 
to  him,  or  from  the  compact  of  fellowship 
entered  into  with  hirti  [S.  Thomas,  quest. 
90).  But,  as  will  be  seen  hereafter,  there 
arelncubiandSuccubi  towhom  none  of  the 
foregoing  applies,  and  yet  copula  sequitur. 
There  is  consequently,  in  that  special  case, 
no  element  of  irreligion,  no  other  charac- 
ter quam  puri  et  simplicis  coitus;  and,  if  of 
the  same  species  as  Bestiality,  it  would  be 
adequately  stated  by  saying  :  /  have  been 
guilty  of  the  sin  of  Bestiality;  which  is 
not  so. 

8.  Besides,  it  is  acknowledged  by  all 
Theological  Moralists  xhd^X  copula  cumDcB- 
mone  is  much  more  grievous  than  the  same 
act  committed  with  any  beast  soever. 
Now,  in  the  same  very  particular  species 
of  sins,  one  sin  is  not  more  grievous  than 

14  Daemonialitas 

perinde  enim  est  coire  cum  cane,  aut  asina^ 

aut  equa;  sequitur  ergo,  quod  si  Daemonia- 
litas est  gravior  Bestialitate,  non  sint  ambo 
ejusdem  speciei.  Nee  [dicendum  gravitatem 
majorem  in  Daemonialitate  petendam  esse 
ab  irreligiositate,  seu  superstitione  ex  so- 
cietate  cum  Dcemone ,  ut  scribit  Cajetanus 
ad  2.  2.  q.  154.;  ar.  11.  ^  ad  3.  in  fine,  quia 
hocfallit  in  aliquibus  Succubis  et  Incubis, 
ut  supra  dictum  est;  tum  quia  gravitas 
major  statuitur  in  Daemonialitate  prce  Bes- 
tialitate, in  genere  vitii  contra  naturam  : 
major  aut  em  gravitas  in  ilia  supra  istam 
ratione  irreligiositatis  exorbitat  ex  illo  ge- 
nere, proinde  nonfacit  in  illo  genere,  et  ex 
se  gravior  em. 

9.  Statuta  igitur  differentia  specifica  Dee- 
monialitatis  a  Bestialitate,  ut  gravitas  il- 
lius  percipiatur  in  ordine  ad  poenam  de  qua 
principaliter  nobis  tractandum  est,  est  ne- 
cessarium  inquirere  quotupliciter  Daemo- 
nialitas accidat.  Non  desunt  qui  sibi  nimis 
scioli  negant  quod  gravissimi  Auctores 
scripserci  et  quod  quotidiana  constat  expe- 
rientia,  Dcemonem  scilicet  tum  Incubum^ 
tum  Succubum,  non  solum  hominibus,  sed 
etiam  brutis   carnaliter   conjungi.    Aiunt 

Demoniality  1 5 

another;  all  are  equally  so  :  it  comes  to 
the  same  whether  connection  is  had  with 
a  bitch,  an  ass,  or  a  mare ;  whence  it  fol- 
lows that  if  Demoniality  is  more  grievous 
than  Bestiality,  those  two  acts  are  not  of 
the  same  species.  And  let  it  not  be  argued, 
with  Cajetahus,  that  Demoniality  is  more 
grievous  on  account  of  the  offense  to  reli- 
gion from  the  worship  rendered  to  the 
Demon  or  the  compact  of  fellowship  ente- 
red into  with  him  :  as  has  been  shown 
above,  that  is  not  always  met  with  in  the 
connection  of  man  with  Incubi  and  Suc- 
cubi ;  moreover,  if  in  the  genus  of  unna- 
tural sin  Demoniality  is  more  grievous 
than  Bestiality,  the  offense  to  Religion  is 
quite  foreign  to  that  aggravation,  since  it 
is  foreign  to  that  genus  itself. 

9.  Now,  having  laid  down  the  specific 
difference  between  Demoniality  and  Bes- 
tiality, so  that  the  gravity  thereof  may  be 
duly  appreciated  in  view  of  the  penalty 
to  be  inflicted  (and  that  is  our  most  essen- 
tial object),  We  must  inquire  in  how 
many  different  ways  the  sin  of  Demoniac 
lity  may  be  committed.  There  is  no  lack 
of  people  who,  infatuated  with  their  small 
baggage  of  knowledge ,  venture  to  deny 
what  has  been  written  by  the  gravest  authors 

1 6  Daemonialitas 

proinde  essehominum  imaginationem,  phan- 
tasmatibus  a  Dcemone  perturbatis  Icpsam, 
seu  dcemoniaca  esse  prcestigia:  sicuti  etiam 
Sagce,  seu  Striges,  sola  imaginatione  per- 
turbata  a  Dcvmone  ,  sibi  videntur  assistere 
ludis,  choreis,  conviviis,  et  conventibus  noc- 
tiirnis,  et  carnaliter  Dcemoni  commisceri ; 
nullo  vero  reali  modo  de/eruntur  corpore 
ad  ejusmodi  loca  et  actiones,  prout  textua- 
liter  dicitur  in  quodam  Capitulo,  ac  duobus 
Conciliis.  Cap.  Episcop.  26.  q.  5.,  Cone. 
Ancyr.  c.  24.,  Cone.  Rom.  4.  sub  Damaso, 
c.  5.  apud  Laur.  Epitom.  v°  Saga. 

10.  Sed  non  negatur,  qutn  aliquando 
mulierculce,  illusce  a  DcBmonibus,  videantur 
nocturnis  Sagarum  ludis  corporaliter  inter- 
esse,  dum  tamen  sola  imaginaria  visione 
ipsis  hoc  accidit :  sicut  etiam  in  somnis 
videtur  nonnullis  cum  foemina  aliqua  con- 
cumbere,  et  semen  vere  excernitur,  non  ta- 
men concubitus  ille  realis  est ,  sed  tantum 
phantasticus ,  paratus  non  raro  per  illusio- 
nem  diabolicam ;  et  in  hoc  verissimum  est 
quod  habent  citatum  Capitulum  et  Concilia, 

Demonialitjr  1 7 

and  is  testified  by  every  day  experience  : 
namely,  that  the  Demon,  whether  Incubus 
or  Succubus,  unites  carnally  not  only  with 
men  and  women,  but  also  with  beasts. 
They  allege  that  it  all  comes  from  the 
human  imagination  troubled  by  the  craft 
of  the  Demon,  and  that  there  is  nothing  in 
it  but  phantasmagoria  and  diabolical  spells. 
The  like  happens,  they  say,  to  Witches  or 
Sagas,  who,  under  the  influence  of  an 
illusion  brought  on  by  the  Demon,  fancy 
that  they  attend  the  nightly  sports,  dances, 
revels  and  vigils,  and  have  carnal  inter- 
course with  the  Demon,  though  in  reality 
they  are  not  bodily  transferred  to  those 
places  nor  taking  part  in  those  deeds,  as 
has  been  defined  verbatim  by  a  Gapitule 
and  two  Councils. 

10.  Of  course,  it  is  not  contested  that  so- 
metimes young  women,  deceived  by  the 
Demon,  fancy  taking  part,  in  their  flesh 
and  blood,  in  the  nightly  vigils  of  Witches, 
without  its  being  any  thing  but  an  imagi- 
nary vision. Thus,  inadream,  one  sometimes 
fancies  cum  foemina  aliqua  concumbere,  et 
semen  vereexcernitur,  non  tamen  concubitus 
ille  realis  est,  but  merely  fantastic,  and  often 
brought  about  by  a  diabolical  illusion  :  and 
here  the  above  mentioned  Capitule  and 

1 8  Daemonialitas 

Sed  hoc  non  semper  est ;  sed  ut  in  pluribus, 
corpore  deferuntur  Sagce  ad  ludos  noctur- 
nos,  et  vere  carnaliter  corpore  conjungiin- 
tur  Dcemoni,  et  Malefici  non  minus  Dcemo- 
ni  succubo  miscentur,  et  hcec  est  sententia 
Theologorum,  et  jure  consultorum  Catho- 
licorum,  quos  ahunde  citat  Frater  Fran- 
ciscus  Maria  Guaccius  in  suo  libro  intitu- 
lato  Compendium  Maleficarum;   Grilland. 
Remig.  Petr.  Damian.  Sylvest.  Alphon.  a 
Cast.  Abul.  Cajet.  Senon.  Crespet.  Spine. 
Anan.  apud  Guacciiim,  Comp.  Malef.,  c.  1 5. 
§  Altera,  quam  verissimam...  n.  69.  lib.  p.; 
quce  sententia   conjirmatur  decern  et  octo 
exemplis,  ibidem  allatis  et  relatis  per  vi- 
ros  doctos  et  veridicos  de  quorum  fide  am- 
bigendum  non  est^  quibus  probatur  Malefi- 
cos  et  Sagas  corporaliter  ad  ludos  conve- 
nire,  et  cum  Dcemonibus  succubis  et  incubis 
corporaliter  turpissime  commisceri.  Et  pro 
omnibus  sufficere  debet  auctoritas  Divi  Au- 
gustini,   qui    loquens   de   concubitu  homi- 
num  cum  Dcemonibus ,  sic  ait  lib.  \S.  de 
Civitate  Dei,  c.    23.:  «  Et  quoniam  cre- 
berrima  fama  est,  multique  se  expertos, 
vel  ab  eis  qui  experti   essent,  de  quorum 
fide  dubitandum  non  est,  audivisse  confir- 
mant ,   Sylvanos   et   Faunos ,    quos  vulgo 
Incubos   vocant,  improbos  saspe  extitisse 
mulieribus ,   et  earura  appetiisse  et  pere- 

Demoniality  1 9 

Councils  are  perfectly  right.  But  this  is 
not  always  the  case  ;  on  the  contrary,  it 
more  often  happens  that  Witches  are  bo- 
dily present  at  nightly  vigils  and  have 
with  the  Demon  a  genuine  carnal  and  cor- 
poreal connection,  and  that  likewise  Wi- 
zards copulate  with  the  Succuba  or  female 
Demon.  Such  is  the  opinion  of  Theologians 
as  well  as  of  jurists,  whose  names  will  be 
found  at  length  in  the  Compendium  Male- 
ficarum,  or  Chronicle  of  Witches,  by  Bro- 
ther Francis  Marie  Guaccius.  This  doc- 
trine is  therein  confirmed  by  eighteen 
instances  adduced  from  the  recitals  of  lear- 
ned and  truthful  men  whose  testimony  is 
beyond  suspicion,  and  which  prove  that 
Wizards  and  Witches  are  indeed  bodily 
present  at  vigils  and  most  shamefully 
copulate  with  Demons,  Incubi  or  Succubi. 
And,  after  all,  to  settle  the  question,  we 
have  the  authority  of  S.  Austin,  who, 
speaking  of  carnal  intercourse  between 
men  and  the  Demon,  expresses  himself  as 
follows,  book  i5^^,  chapt,  23^  of  the 
City  of  God  :  «  It  is  widely  credited,  and 
such  belief  is  confirmed  by  the  direct  or  in- 
direct testimony  of  thoroughly  trustwor- 
thy people,  that  Sylvans  and  Fauns,  com- 
monly called  Incubi,  have  frequently  mo- 
lested womeny  sought  and  obtained  from 

20  Daemonialitas 

gisse  concubitum.  Et  quosdam  Daemones, 
quos  Dusios  Galli  nuncupant,  banc  assidue 
immunditiam  et  tentare  et  efficere,  plures 
talesque  asseverant,  ut  boc  negare  impu- 
dentia  videatur.  »  Hcec  Augustinus. 

II.  Prout  aiitem  apud  diversos  Aiictores 
legitur,  et  pluribus  experimentis  comproba- 
tur,  duplici  modo  Dcptnon  hominibus  car- 
naliter  copulatur :  iino  modo  quo  Malejicis 
et  Sagis  jungitur,  alio  modo  quo  aliis  ho- 
minibus minime  malejicis  miscetur. 

12.  Quantum  ad primum  modum,  non  co- 
pulatur Dcemon  Sagis,  seu  Malejicis ,  nisi 
pra^missa  solemni  professione,  qua  iniquis- 
simi  homines  Dcemoni  addicuntur ;  quce  pro- 
fession ut  ex  variis  Auctoribus  referentibus 
confessiones  Sagarum  judiciales  in  tormen- 
tisfactas,  quas  collegit  Franciscus  Maria 
Guaccius,  Comp.  Malef ,  c.  7.,  lib.  i.,  con- 
sistit  in  undecim  ceremoniis  : 

1 3.  Prima  J  ineunt  pactum  expressum  cum 
Dcemone,  aut  alio  Mago  seu  Malejico  vicem 

Demoniality  1 1 

ihem  coition.  There  are  even  Demons, 
whom  the  Gauls  call  Duses  or  Elfs,  who 
very  regularly  indulge  in  those  unclean 
practices  :  the  fact  is  testified  by  so  many 
and  such  weighty  authorities,  that  it  were 
impudent  to  doubt  it.  »  Such  are  the  very- 
words  of  S.  Austin. 

11.  Now,  several  authors  profess,  and  it 
is  confirmed  by  numerous  experiments, 
that  the  Demon  has  two  ways  of  copula- 
ting carnally  with  men  or  women:  the  one 
which  it  uses  with  Witches  or  Wizards, 
the  other  with  men  or  women  entirely  fo- 
reign to  witchcraft. 

12.  In  the  first  case,  the  Demdn  does  not 
copulate  with  Witches  or  Wizards  until 
after  a  solemn  profession,  in  virtue  of 
which  such  wretched  human  beings  yield 
themselves  up  to  him.  According  to  several 
authors  who  have  related  the  judicial  ad- 
missions of  Witches  when  on  the  rack,  and 
whose  recitals  have  been  collected  by 
Francis-Marie Guaccius,  Compend.  Male/., 
book  I,  chapt.  7,  that  profession  consists 
of  eleven  ceremonials : 

1 3.  Firstly,  the  Novices  have  to  conclude 
with  the  Demon,  or  some  other  Wizard  or 

22  Daemonialitas 

Dcemonis  gerente,  et  testibus  prcesentibus, 
de  servitio  diabolico  suscipiendo  :  Dcemon 
vero  vice  versa  honores,  divitias,  et  carnales 
delectationes  loc.  cit. 
foL  34. 

14.  Secundo,  abnegant  catholicam  fidem, 
subducunt  se  obedientice  Dei,  renuntiant 
Christo,  et  protectioni  Beatissimce  Virginis 
Marice,  ac  Ecclesice  omnibus  sacramentis. 
Guacc,  loc.  cit. 

1 5.  Tertio,  projiciunt  a  se  Coronam,  seu 
Rosarium  B.  V.  M.,  Chordam  S.  P.Fran- 
cisci,  aut  Corrigiam  S.  Augustini,  aut 
Scapulare  Carmelitarum,  si  quod  habent, 
Crucem,  Medaleas,  Agnos  Dei,  et  quidquid 
sacri  aut  benedicti  gestabant,  et  pedibus  ea 
proculcant.  loc.  cit.  fol.  35.  Gn7- 

16.  Quarto,  vovent  in  manibus  Diaboli 
obedientiam,  et  subjectionem,  eique  prce- 
stant  homagium  et  vassallagium,  tangendo 
quoddam  volumen  nigerrimum.  Spondent^ 
quod  nunquam  redibunt  ad  fidem  Christi, 
nee  Dei  prcecepta  servabunt,  nee  ulla  bona 
opera  facient,  sed  ad  sola  mandata  Dee- 

Demoniality  23 

Magician  acting  in  the  Demon's  place,  an 
express  compact  by  which,  in  the  presence 
of  witnesses,  they  enlist  in  the  Demon's 
service,  he  giving  them  in  exchange  his 
pledge  for  honours,  riches  and  carnal 

14.  Secondly,  they  abjure  the  catholic 
faith,  withdraw  from  the  obedience  to  God, 
renounce  Christ  and  the  protection  of  the 
most  blessed  Virgin  Mary,  and  all  the  Sa- 
craments of  the  Church. 

1 5.  Thirdly,  they  cast  away  the  Crown, 
or  Rosary  of  the  most  blessed  Virgin 
Mary,  the  girdle  of  S.  Francis,  or  the  strap 
of  S.  Austin  ,  or  the  scapular  of  the  Car- 
melites, should  they  belong  to  one  of  those 
Orders,  the  Cross,  the  Medals,  the  Agnus 
Dei,  whatever  other  holy  or  consecrated 
object  may  have  been  about  their  person, 
and  trample  them  all  under  foot. 

16.  Fourthly,  in  the  hands  of  the  Devil 
they  vow  obedience  and  subjection;  they 
pay  him  homage  and  vassalage,  laying 
their  fingers  on  some  very  black  book* 
They  bind  themselves  never  to  return  to 
the  faith  of  Christ,  to  observe  none  of  thfe 
divine  precepts,  to  do  nb  good  work,  but 

24  Dasmonialitas 

monis  attendent,  et  ad  conventus  nocturnos 
diligenter  accedent .  Guacc.  loc.  cit.fol.  36. 

17.  Qtiinto,  spondent  se  enixe  curaturos, 
et  omni  studio  ac  sedulitate  procuraturos 
adducere  alios  mares  et  foeminas  ad  suam 
sectam,  et  cultumDcemonis.  Guacc.  loc.  cit. 

18.  Sexto,  bapti:{antur  a  Diabolo  sacri- 
lego  quodam  baptismo,  et  abnegatis  Pa- 
trinis  et  Matrinis  baptismi  Christi,  et 
Confirmationis,  et  nomine,  quod  sibi  fuit 
primo  impositum,  a  Diabolo  sibi  assignan- 
tiir  Patrimis  et  Matrina  novi,  qui  ipsos 
instruant  in  arte  malejiciorum,  et  imponi- 
tur  nomen  novum,  quod  plerumque  scurrile 
est.  Guacc.  loc.  cit. 

19.  Septimo,  abscindunt  partem  pro- 
priorum  indumentorum^  et  illam  offerunt 
Diabolo  in  signum  homagii,  et  Diabolus  il- 
lam asportat,  etservat.  Guacc.  loc.  cit./ol.38. 

20.  Octavo,  format  Diabolus  circulum 
super  terram,  et  in  eo  stantes  Novitii  Ma- 
lefici  et  Sagce  jirmant  juramento  omnia, 
quce  ut  dictum  est  promiserunt.  Guacc.  loc. 

Demoniality  25 

to  obey  the  Demon  alone  and,  to  attend 
diligently  the  nightly  conventicles. 

17.  Fifthly,  they  promise  to  strive  with 
all  their  power,  and  to  give  their  utmost 
zeal  and  care  for  the  enlistment  of  other 
males  and  females  in  the  service  of  the 

i8.  Sixthly,  the  Devil  administers  to  them 
a  kind  of  sacrilegious  baptism,  and  after 
abjuring  their  Godfathers  and  Godmothers 
of  the  Baptism  of  Christ  and  Confirmation, 
they  have  assigned  to  them  a  new  Godfather 
and  a  new  Godmother,  who  are  to  instruct 
them  in  the  arts  of  witchcraft ;  they  drop 
their  former  name  and  exchange  it  for 
another,  more  frequently  a  scurrilous 

19.  Seventhly,  they  cut  off  a  part  of  their 
own  garments,  and  tender  it  as  a  token  of 
homage  to  the  Devil,  who  takes  it  away  and 
keeps  it. 

20.  Eighthly,  the  Devil  draws  on  the 
ground  a  circle  wherein  stand  the  Novi- 
ces, Witches  and  Wizards,  and  there  they 
confirm  by  oath  all  their  aforesaid  pro- 


26  Daemonialitas 

21 .  Nono,  petunt  a  Diaholo  deleri  a  libro 
Christi,  et  describi  in  libro  suo,  et  pro- 
fertur  liber  nigerrimus,  quern  tetigerunt 
prcestando  homagium,  ut  dictum  est  supra, 
et  ungue  Diaboli  in  eo  exarantur,  Guacc. 
he.  cit. 

2  2.  Decimo,  promittunt  Diabolo  statis 
temporibus  sacrificia,  et  oblationes;  sin- 
gulis quindecim  diebus,  vel  singula  mense 
saltern,  necem  alicujus  infantis,  aut  mortale 
veneficium,  et  singulis  hebdomadis  alia 
mala  in  damnum  humani  generis,  ut  gran- 
dines,  tempestates,  incendia,  mortem  ani- 
malium,  etc.  Guacc.  loc.  cit.fol.  40. 

23.  Undecimo,  sigillantur  a  Dcemone 
aliquo  charactere,  maxime  ii,  de  quorum 
constantid  dubitat .  Character  vero  non  est 
semper  ejusdem  formce,  aut  figures  :  ali- 
quando  enim  est  simile  lepori,  aliquando 
pedi  bu/onis,  aliquando  aranece,  vel  catello^ 
vel  gliri;  imprimitur  autem  in  locis  cor- 
poreis  magis  occultis  :  viris  quidem  ali^ 
quando  sub  palpebris,  aliquando  sub  axillis, 
aut  labiis,  aut  humeris,  aut  sede  ima,  aut 
alibi;  mulieribus  autem  plerumque  in 
fnammis,  aut  locis  muliebribus.  Porro  si- 
gillum,  quo  talia  signa  imprimuntur,  est 
unguis  Diaboli.  Quibus  peractis  ad  instru' 

Demoniality  27 

21.  Ninthly,  they  request  the  Devil  to 
strike  them  out  of  the  book  of  Christ,  and 
to  inscribe  them  in  his  own.  Then  comes 
forth  that  very  black  book  on  which,  as 
has  been  said  before,  they  laid  hands  when 
doing  homage,  and  they  are  inscribed 
therein  with  the   Devil's  claw. 

22.  Tenthly,  they  promise  the  Devil  sa- 
crifices and  offerings  at  stated  times :  once  a 
fortnight  or  at  least  each  month,  the  mur- 
der of  som«  child,  or  an  homicidal  act  of 
sorcery,  and  other  weekly  misdeeds  to  the 
prejudice  of  mankind,  such  as  hailstorms, 
tempests,  fires,  cattle  plagues,  etc. 

23.  Eleventhly,  the  Demon  imprints  on 
them  some  mark,  especially  on  those  whose 
constancy  he  suspects.  That  mark,  moreo- 
ver, is  not  always  of  the  same  shape  or  figure : 
sometimes  it  is  the  image  of  a  hare,  some- 
times a  toad's  \e^,  sometimes  a  spider,  a 
puppy,  a  dormouse.  It  is  imprinted  on  the 
most  hidden  parts  of  the  body:  with  men, 
under  the  eye-lids,  or  the  armpits,  or  the 
lips,  on  the  shoulder,  the  fundament,  or 
somewhere  else ;  with  women,  it  is  usually 
on  the  breasts  or  the  privy  parts.  Now, 
the  stamp  which  imprints  those  marks  is 
none  other  but  the  Devil's  claw.  This  ha- 

28  Daemonialitas 

ctionem  Magistrorum  qui  Novitios  initia- 
runt,  hi  promittunt  denuo,  se  nunquam 
Eucharistiam  adoraturos ;  injuriosos  Sanc- 
tis omnibus,  et  maxime  B.  V.  M.futuros; 
conculcaturos  ac  conspurcaturos  Sacras 
Imagines,  Crucem,  ac  Sanctorum  Reli- 
quias;  nunquam  usuros  Sacramentis,  aut 
sacramentalibus,  nisi  ad  malejicia ;  inte- 
gram  confessionem  sacramentalem  sacer- 
doti  nunquam  facturos,  et  suum  cum 
Dcemone  commercium  semper  celaturos. 
Et  Diabolus  vicissim  pollicetur^  se  illis 
semper  prcesto  futurum ;  se  in  hoc  mundo 
votis  eorum  satisfacturum,  et  post  mortem 
illos  esse  beaturum.  Sic  per  acta  profes- 
sione  solemni,  assignatur  singulis  eorum 
Diabolus,  qui  appellatur  Magistellus,  cum 
quo  in  partes  secedunt,  et  carnaliter  com- 
miscentur.'  ille  quidem  in  specie  foemince, 
si  initiatus  est  vir;  in  forma  autem  viri,  et 
aliquandosatyri,  aliquando  hirci,sifoemina 
est  saga  professa.  Guacc.  loc.  cit.foL  42 
ef  43. 

24.  Qiiod  si  queer atur  ab  Auctoribus, 
quomodo  possit  Dcemon,  qui  corpus  non 
habet,  corporalem  commixtionem  habe- 
re cum  homine  :  respondent  communiter, 

Demoniality  29 

ving  been  all  performed  in  accordance 
with  the  instructions  of  the  Teachers  who 
have  initiated  the  Novices,  these  promise 
lastly  never  to  worship  the  Eucharist;  to 
insult  all  Saints  and  especially  the  most 
blessed  Virgin  Mary;  to  trample  under 
foot  and  vilify  the  holy  images,  the  Cross 
and  the  relics  of  Saints  ;  never  to  use  the 
sacraments  or  sacramental  ceremonials; 
never  to  make  a  full  confession  to  the  priest, 
but  to  keep  always  hidden  from  him  their 
intercourse  with  the  Demon.  The  Demon, 
in  exchange,  engages  to  give  them  always 
prompt  assistance;  to  fulfil  their  desires  in 
this  world  and  to  make  them  happy  after 
their  death.  The  solemn  profession  being 
thus  performed,  each  has  assigned  to  him- 
self a  Devil,  called  Magistellus  or  Assistant 
Master,  with  whom  he  retires  in  private 
for  carnal  satisfaction;  the  said  Devil 
being,  of  course,  in  the  shape  of  a  woman 
if  the  initiated  person  is  a  man,  in  the 
shape  of  a  man,  sometimes  of  a  satyr,  so- 
metimes of  a  buck-goat,  if  it  is  a  woman 
who  has  been  received  a  witch. 

24.  If  the  authors  be  asked  how  it  comes 
to  pass  that  the  Demon,  who  has  no  body, 
yet  has  carnal  intercourse  with  man  or 
woman,  they  unanimously    answer  that 


3o  Daemonialitas 

quod  DcBmon  aut  assumit  alterius  maris 
aut  fcemince,  juxta  exigentiam,  cadaver, 
aut  ex  mixtione  aliarum  materiarum  ef- 
fingit  sibi  corpus,  quod  movet,  et  mediante 
quo  homini  uniiur.  Et  subdunt ,  quod 
quando  foemince  gaudent  imprcegnari  a 
Dcemone  [quod  non  fit,  nisi  in  gratiam 
foeminarum  hoc  optantium),  Dcemon  se 
transformat  in  succubam,  et  juncta  homini 
semen  ab  eo  recipit ;  aut  per  illusionem 
nocturnam  in  somnis  procurat  ab  homine 
pollutionem,  et  semen  prolectum  in  suo  na- 
tivo  calore  et  cum  vitali  spiritu  conservat, 
et  incubando  foemince  infert  in  ipsius  ma- 
tricem,  ex  quo  sequitur  conceptio.  Ita 
multis  citatis  docet  Guaccius,  I.  i.e.  ii., 
per  totum,  qui  prcedicta  multis  exemplis 
desumptis  u  variis  Doctoribus  confirmat. 

2  5.  Alio  modo  jungitur  Dcemon  turn 
Incubus,  turn  Succubus,  hominibus,  fcemi- 
nis  aut  maribus,  a  quibus  nee  honorem,  nee 
sacrificia,  oblationes,  maleficia,  quce  a  Sa- 
gis  et  Maleficis,  ut  supra  dictum  est,  prce 
tendit,  recipit;  sed  ostendens  deperdite 
amorem,  nil  aliud  appetit,  quam  carnaliter 
commisceri    cum   iis  quos    amat.    Multa 

Demoniality  3 1 

the  Demon  assumes  the  corpse  of  another 
human  being,  male  or  female  as  the  case 
may  be,  or  that,  from  the  mixture  of  other 
materials,  he  shapes  for  himself  a  body 
endowed  with  motion,  and  by  means  of 
which  he  is  united  with  the  human  being ; 
and  they  add  that  when  women  are  desi- 
rous of  becoming  pregnant  by  the  Demon 
(which  only  occurs  by  the  consent  and 
express  wish  of  the  said  women),  the  De- 
mon is  transformed  into  a  Succuba ,  et 
juncta  homini  semen  ab  eo  recipit;  or  else 
he  procures  pollution  from  a  man  during 
his  sleep,  et  semen  prolectum  in  suo  nativo 
calore,  et  cum  vitali  spiritu  conservat,  et 
incubando  foemince  infert  in  ipsius  matri- 
cem,  whence  follows  impregnation.  Such 
is  the  teaching  of  Guaccius,  book  i, 
chapt.  12,  who  supports  it  on  a  number 
of  quotations  and  instances  taken  from  va- 
rious Doctors. 

25.  At  other  times  also  the  Demon, 
whether  Incubus  or  Succubus,  copulates 
with  men  or  women  from  whom  he  recei- 
ves none  of  the  sacrifices,  homage  or  offe- 
rings which  he  is  wont  to  exact  from 
Wizards  or  Witches ,  as  aforesaid.  He  is 
then  but  a  passionate  lover,  having  only 
one  desire :  the  carnal  possession  of  the 

32  Daemonialitas 

sunt  de  hoc  exempla,  quce  ab  Auctoribus 
referuntur,  ut  Menippi  Lycii,  quifuit  sol- 
licitatus  a  quadam  foemina  ad  sibi  nuben- 
dum,  postquam  cum  ea  multoties  coivit ;  et 
detect  a  foemina  qucenam  esset  a  quodam 
Philosopho,  qui  convivio  nuptiali  intereraty 
et  Menippo  dixit  illam  esse  Compusam, 
puta  Dcemonem  succubam,  statim  ejulans 
evanuit,  ut  narrat  Ccelius  Rhodiginus, 
Antiq.,  lib.  29.  c.  5.  Pariter  adolescens 
quidam  Scotus  a  Dcomone  succuba  omnium 
gratissima,  quas  vidisset,  forma,  quce  oc- 
clusis  cubiculi  foribus  ad  se  ventitabat, 
blanditiis,  osculis,  amplexibus  per  multos 
menses  fuit  sollicitatus,  ut  secum  coiret, 
ut  scribit  Hector  Boethius,  Hist.  Scotor. 
lib.  8.,  quod  tamen  a  casto  juvene  obtinere 
non  potuit.. 

26.  Similiter,  multas  fceminas  legimus 
ab  Incubo  Dcemone  expetitas  ad  coitum, 
ipsisque  repugnantibus  /acinus  admittere^ 
precibus,  fietibus,  blanditiis,  non  secus  ac 
perditissimus  amasius,  procurasse  animum 
ipsarum  demulcere,  et  ad  congressum  in- 
clinare;  et  quamvis  aliquoties  hoc  eveniat 

Demoniality  33 

loved  ones.  Of  this  there  are  numerous 
instances  to  be  found  in  the  authors , 
amongst  which  the  case  of  Menippus 
Lycius,  who,  after  frequent  coition  with  a 
woman,  was  by  her  entreated  to  marry 
her;  but  a  certain  philosopher,  who  par- 
took of  the  wedding  entertainment,  having 
guessed  what  that  woman  was,  told  Me- 
nippus that  he  had  to  deal  with  a  Compusa^ 
that  is  a  Succuba  Demon ;  whereupon  the 
bride  vanished  bewailing  :  such  is  the 
narrative  given  by  Coelius  Rhodiginus, 
Antiq.,  book  29,  chapt.  5.  Hector  Boe- 
thius  [Hist.  Scot.)  also  relates  the  case  of 
a  young  Scot,  who,  during  many  months, 
with  closed  doors  and  windows,  was  visi- 
ted in  his  bed-room  by  a  Succuba  Demon 
of  the  most  bewitching  beauty;  caresses, 
kisses,  embraces,  entreaties,  she  resorted 
to  every  blandishment  ut  secum  coiret:  but 
she  could  not  prevail  on  the  chaste  young 

26.  We  read  likewise  of  numerous  women 
incited  to  coition  by  the  Incubus  Demon, 
and  who,  though  reluctant  at  first  of  yielding 
to  him,  are  soon  moved  by  his  entreaties, 
tears  and  endearments;  he  is  a  desperate 
lover  and  must  not  be  denied.  And  although 
this  comes  sometimes  of  the  craft  of  some 

34  Daemonialitas 

ob  maleficium,  ut  nempe  Dcemon  missus  a 
maleficis  hoc  procuret :  tamen  non  raro 
Dcemon  ex  se  hoc  agit,  ut  scribit  Guaccius, 
Comp.  Mai.  lib.  3.  c.  8.,  et  non  solum  hoc 
evenit  cum  mulieribus,  sed  etiam  cum 
equabus,  cum  quibus  commiscetur ;  quce  si 
libenter  coitum  admittunt,  ab  eo  curantur 
optime,  ac  ipsarum  jubce  varie  artificiosis 
et  inextricabilibus  nodis  texuntur  ,•  si  au- 
tern  ilium  adversentur,  eas  male  tractat, 
percutit,  macras  reddit,  et  tandem  necat, 
ut  quotidiana  constat  experientia. 

27.  Et  quod  mirum  est,  et  pene  incapa- 
bile,  tales  Incubi,  qui  Italice  vocantur 
FoUetti,  Hispanice  Duendes,  Gallice  Fol- 
lets,  nee  Exorcistis  obediunt,  nee  exor- 
cismos  parent,  nee  res  sacras  reverentur 
ad  earum  approximationem  timorem  as- 
tendendo,  sicuti  faciunt  Dcemones,  qui 
obsessos  vexant ;  quantumvis  enim  maligni 
Spiritus  sint  obstinati,  nee  parere  velint 
Exorcistce  prcecipienti,  ut  exeant  a  corpo- 
ribus  quce  obsident,  tamen  ad  prolationem 
Sanctissimi  Nominis  Jesu,  aut  Marice,  aut 
aliquorum  versuum  Sacrce  Scripturce,  im- 
positionem  Reliquiarum^  maxime  Ligni 
Sanctce  CruciSy  approximationem  Sacra- 
rum  Imaginum,  ad  os  obsessi  rugiunt, 
strident,  frendent,  concutiuntur,   et  timo- 

Demoniality  35 

Wizard  who  avails  himself  of  the  agency 
of  the  Demon,  yet  the  Demon  not  infre- 
quently acts  on  his  own  account;  and  it 
happens  not  merely  with  women,  iDut  also 
with  mares;  if  they  readily  comply  with 
his  desire,  he  pets  them,  and  plaits  their 
mane  in  elaborate  and  inextricable  tresses; 
but  if  they  resist,  he  ill-treats  and  strikes 
them,  smites  them  with  the  glanders,  and 
finally  puts  them  to  death,  as  is  shown  by 
daily  experience. 

27.  A  most  marvellous  and  well  high  in- 
comprehensible fact :  the  Incubi  whom 
the  Italians  call  Folletti,  the  Spaniards 
Duendes,  the  French  Follets,  do  not  obey 
the  Exorcists,  have  no  dread  of  exorcisms, 
no  reverence  for  holy  things,  at  the  ap- 
proach of  which  they  are  not  in  the  least 
overawed;  very  different  in  that  respect 
from  the  Demons  who  vex  those  whom 
they  possess;  for,  however  obstinate  those 
evil  Spirits  may  be,  however  restive  to  the 
injunctions  of  the  Exorcist  who  bids  them 
leave  the  body  they  possess,  yet,  at  the  mere 
utterance  of  the  most  holy  name  of  Jesus  or 
Mary,  or  of  some  verses  of  Holy  Writ,  at 
the  mere  imposition  of  relics,  especially 
of  a  piece  of  the  wood  of  the  Holy  Cross,  or 

36  Daemonialitas 

rem  ac  horrorem  ostendunt.  Folletti  vero 
nihil  horum,  ut  dictum  est,  ostendunt,  nee 
a  divexatione,  nisi  post  longum  tempus, 
cessant.  Hujus  rei  testis  sum  oculatus,  et 
historiam  recito  quce  reipsa  humanam 
fidem  superat  :  sed  testis  mihi  sit  Deus 
quod  puram  veritatem  multorum  testimonio 
comprobatam  describo. 

28.  Viginti  quinque  abhinc  annis,  plus 
minusve,  dum  essem  Lector  Sacrce  Theo- 
logies in  Convent  u  Sane  tie  Crucis  Papice^ 
reperiebatur  in  ilia  civitate  honesta  quce- 
dam/cemina  maritata  optimce  conscientia^, 
et  bonum  habens  ab  omnibus  eam  agnos- 
centibus,  maxime  Religiosis,  testimonium, 
quce  vocabatur  Hieronyma ;  et  habitabat 
in  parochia  Sancti  Michaelis.  Hcec  qua- 
dam  die  domi  suce  panem  pinserat,  et  per 
furnarium  miserat  ad  ilium  decoquendum. 
Reportat  panes  coctos  furnarius,  et  cum 
illis  grandem  quamdam  placentam  curiose 
elaboratam,  conditam  butyro,  et  pastulis 
Venetis^  ut  in  ea  civitate  solent  fieri  pla- 
centa; hujusmodi.  Renuit  ilia  placentam 
recipere,  dicens  se  talem  nullam  fecisse. 
Replicat  furnariuSj  se  ilia  die  alium  pa- 

Demoniality  3y 

the  sight  of  the  holy  images ,  they  roar 
at  the  mouth  of  the  possessed  person, 
they  gnash,  shake,  quiver,  and  display 
fright  and  awe.  But  the  Folletti  show  none 
of  those  signs,  and  leave  off  their  vexations 
but  after  a  long  space  of  time.  Of  this 
I  was  an  eye-witness,  and  shall  relate  a  story 
which  verily  passes  human  belief :  but  I 
take  God  to  witness  that  I  tell  the  precise 
truth,  corroborated  by  the  testimony  of 
numerous  persons. 

28.  About  twenty  five  years  ago,  when  I 
was  a  lecturer  on  Sacred  Theology  in  the 
convent  of  the  Holy  Cross,  in  Pavia,  there 
was  living  in  that  city  a  married  woman  of 
unimpeachable  morality,  and  who  was  most 
highly  spoken  of  by  ail  such  as  knew  her, 
especially  by  the  Friars;  her  name  was 
Hieronyma,  and  she  lived  in  the  parish 
of  S.  Michael.  One  day,  this  woman  had 
kneaded  bread  at  home  and  given  it  out  to 
bake.  The  oven-man  brought  her  back  her 
loaves  when  baked,  and  with  them  a  large 
cake  of  a  peculiar  shape,  and  made  of  butter 
and  Venetian  paste,  as  is  usual  in  that  city. 
She  declined  to  take  it  in,  saying  she  had 
not  made  any  thing  of  the  kind.  —  «  But » , 
said  the  oven-man,  a  I  had  no  other  bread 
»  but  yours  to  bake  to-day,  therefore  this 


38  Daemonialitas 

nem  coquendum  non  habuisse,  nisi  ilium 
quern  ab  ea  habuerat ;  oportere  proinde , 
etiam  placentam  a  se  fuisse  factam ,  licet 
minime  de  .  ilia  recordaretur .  Acquievit 
foemina^  et  placentam  cum  viro  suo,  jilia 
quam  habehat  triennem,  etfamula  comedit. 
Sequenti  nocte  dum  cubaret  mulier  cum 
viro  suo,  et  ambo  dormirent,  expergefacta 
est  a  quadam  temiissima  voce,  velut  acu- 
tissimi  sibili  ad  ipsius  aures  susurrante , 
verbis  tamen  distinctis :  interrogavit  autem 
foeminam,  num  placenta  illi  placuisset? 
Pavens  fcemina  ccepit  se  miinire  signo 
Crucis,  et  invocare  scepius  nomina  Jesu  et 
Marice.  Replicabat  vox  t  ne  paveret^  se 
nolle  illi  nocere,  immo  qucecumque  illi 
placer ent  par atum  exsequi,  essefilo  captum 
pulchritudinis  suce,  et  nil  amplius  deside- 
rare,  quam  ejus  amplexufrui.  Tumfosmi- 
na  sensit  aliquem  suaviantem  ipsius  genas, 
sed  tactus  ita  levis,  ac  mollis,  ac  si  esset 
gossipium  subtilissime  carminatum  id  a 
quo  tactafuit.  Respuit  ilia  invitantem,  nee 
ullum  responsum  illi  dedit  :  sed  jugiter 
nomen  Jesu  et  Marice  repetebat,  et  se 
Crucis  signo  muniebat ;  et  sic  per  spatium 
quasi  horce  dimidice  tentata/uit,  et  postea 
abscessit  tentator. 

Sequenti  mane  fuit  mulier  ad  con/essa- 
rium  virum  prudentem  ac  doctum,  a  quo 

Demonialitjr  39 

»  cake  also  must  have  come  from  your 
»  house ;  your  memory  is  at  fault » .  The  good  j^ 
lady  allowed  herself  to  be  persuaded,  and 
partook  of  the  cake  with  her  husband,  her 
little  girl  three  years  old,  and  the  house 
servant.  The  next  night,  whilst  in  bed  with 
her  husband,  and  both  asleep,  she  sud- 
denly woke  up  at  the  sound  of  a  very 
slender  voice,  something  like  a  shrill  his- 
sing, whispering  in  her  ears,  yet  with  great 
distinctness,  and  inquiring  whether  a  the 
»  cake  had  been  to  her  taste?))  The  good 
lady,  frightened,  set  about  guarding  her- 
self with  a  sign  of  the  cross  and  repeatedly 
calling  the  names  of  Jesus  and  Mary.  «  Be 
»  not  afraid,))  said  the  voice, «  I  mean  you  no 
»  harm ;  quite  the  reverse  :  I  am  prepared 
» to  do  any  thing  to  please  you ;  I  am  capti- 
»  vatedbyyour  beauty,  and  desire  nothing 
»  more  than  to  enjoy  your  embraces )).  And 
she  felt  somebody  kissing  her  cheeks,  so 
lightly,  so  softly,  that  she  might  have  fan- 
cied being  grazed  by  the  finest  down.  She 
resisted  without  giving  any  answer,  merely 
repeating  over  and  over  again  the  names 
of  Jesus  and  Mary,  and  crossing  herself; 
the  tempter  kept  on  thus  for  nearly  half  an 
hour,  when  he  withdrew. 

The  next  morning  the  dame  called  on 
her  Confessor,  a  discreet  and  learned  man, 

40  Daemonialitas 

fuit  in  fide  confirmata  et  exhortata,  ut 
viriliter,  sicut  fecerat,  resisteret,  et  sacris 
Reliquiis  se  muniret.  Sequentibus  noctibus 
par  priori  fuit  tentatio,  et  verbis,  et  oscu- 
lis,  et  par  etiam  in  muliere  constantia. 
Hcec  pertcesa  talem  ac  tantam  molestiam, 
ad  Confessarii  con  suit  ationem,  et  aliorum 
gravium  virorum,  per  Exorcistas  peritos 
fecit  se  exorci^are  ad  sciendum  num  esset 
obsessa;  et  cum  invenissent  a  nullo  malo 
spiritu  possideri,  benedixerunt  domui,  cu- 
biculo,  lecto,  et  prceceptum  Incubo  fece- 
runt,  ne  auderet  molestiam  amplius  mu- 
lieri  inferre.  Sed  omnia  incassum  :siquidem 
tentationem  inceptam  prosequebatur,  ac  si 
prce  amore  langueret,  ploratus  et  ejulatus 
emittebat  ad  mulierem  demulcendam,  quce 
tamen  gratia  Die  adjuta  semper  viriliter 
restitit.  Renovavit  Incubus  tentationem, 
ipsi  apparens  interdiu  in  forma  pusionis^ 
seu  parvi  homunculi  pulcherrimi,  ca^sa- 
riem  habens  rutilam  et  crispam,  barbamque 
fulvam  ac  splend'entem  velut  aurum,  glau- 
cosque  oculos,  ut  fios  lini,  incedebatque 
indutus  habitu  Hispanico.  Apparebat  au- 
tem  illi  quamvis  cum  ea  alii  morarentur ; 
et  questus,  prout  faciunt  amantes,  exer- 
cens,  et  jactando  basia,  solitasque  preces 
repetendo  tentabat  mulierem,  ut  ad  illius 
amplexiis  admitteretur.  Videbatque,  et  au- 

Demoniality  41 

who  confirmed  her  in  her  faith,  exhorted 
her  to  maintain  her  energetic  resistance 
and  to  provide  herself  with  some  holy 
relics.  On  the  ensuing  nights,  like  tempta- 
tion with  the  same  language  and  kisses, 
ike  constancy  also  on  the  part  of  the  wo- 
man. Weary  however  of  such  painful  and 
persistent  molestation,  taking  the  advice 
of  her  Confessor  and  other  grave  men,  she 
had  herself  exorcised  by  experienced  Exor- 
cists, in  order  to  ascertain  whether  per- 
chance she  was  not  possessed.  Having 
found  in  her  no  trace  of  the  evil  Spirit, 
they  blessed  the  house,  the  bed-room,  the 
bed,  and  enjoined  on  the  Incubus  to  discon- 
tinue his  molestations.  All  to  no  purpose  : 
he  kept  on  worse  than  ever,  pretending 
to  be  love-sick,  weeping  and  moaning  in 
order  to  melt  the  heart  of  the  lady,  who 
however,  by  the  grace  of  God,  remained 
unconquered.  The  Incubus  then  went 
another  way  to  work  :  he  appeared  in  the 
shape  of  a  lad  or  little  man  of  great  beauty, 
with  golden  locks,  a  flaxen  beard  that 
shone  like  gold,  sea-green  eyes  calling 
to  mind  the  flax-flower,  and  arrayed  in  a 
fancy  Spanish  dress.  Besides  he  appeared 
to  her  even  when  in  company,  whimpe- 
ring, after  the  fashion  of  lovers,  kissing 
his   hand   to    her,    and  endeavouring  by 

42  Daemonialitas 

diebat  ilia  sola  prcesentem  ac  loqiientemj 
minime  autem  cceteri  adstantes. 

Perseverabat  in  ilia  constantia  mulier, 
donee  contra  earn  iratus  Incubus,  post  ali- 
quos  menses  blanditiarum  novum  persecu- 
tionis  genus  adortus  est.  Primo  abstiilit 
ab  ea  crucem  argenteam  plenam  Reliquiis 
Sanctorum ,  et  ceram  benedictam ,  sive 
Agnum  papalem  B.  Pontificis  Pii  V,  quce 
secum  semper  portabat;  mox  etiam  annu- 
los  et  alia  jocalia  aurea  et  argentea  ipsius, 
intactis  seris  sub  quibus  custodiebantur , 
in  area  suffuratus  est.  Exinde  coepit  illam 
acriter  per  cuter  e,  et  apparebant  post  ver- 
bera  contusiones^  et  livores  in  facie^  bra- 
chiis,  aliisque  corporis  partibus^  quce  per 
diem  unum  vel  alterum  perdurabant,  mox 
in  momento  disparebant  contra  ordinem 
contusionis  naturalis,  quce  sensim  paula- 
timque  decrescit.  Aliquoties  ipsius  infan- 
tulam  lactentem  cunis  eripiebaty  et  illam, 
nunc  super  tecta  in  limine  prcecipitii  loca^ 
baty  nunc  occultabat,  nihil  tamen  mali  in 
ilia  apparuit.  Aliquoties  totam  domus 
supellectilem  evertebat ;  aliquoties  ollas, 
paropsides,  et  alia  vasa  testea  minutatim 
frangebat,  subinde  fracta  restituebat  In- 
tegra. Semel  dum  ipsa  cum  viro  cuba- 
rety  appar ens  Incubus  in  forma  solita  enixe 

Demoniality  43 

every  means  to  obtain  her  embraces.  She 
alone  saw  and  heard  him  :  for  every  body 
else,  he  was  not  to  be  seen. 

The  good  lady  kept  persevering  in  her 
admirable  constancy  till,  at  last,  after 
some  months  of  courting,  the  Incubus, 
incensed  at  her  disdain,  had  recourse  to  a 
new  kind  of  persecution.  First,  he  took 
away  from  her  a  silver  cross  filled  with 
holy  relics,  and  a  holy  wax  or  papal  lamb 
of  the  blessed  Pontiff  Pius  V,  which  she 
always  carried  on  her  person ;  then,  leaving 
the  locks  untouched,  he  purloined  her 
rings  and  other  gold  and  silver  jewelry 
from  the  casket  wherein  they  were  put 
away.  Next,  he  began  to  strike  her  cruelly, 
and  after  each  beating  bruises  and  marks 
were  to  be  seen  on  her  face,  her  arms  or 
other  parts  of  her  body,  which  lasted  a 
day  or  two,  then  suddenly  disappeared,  the 
reverse  of  natural  bruises  which  decrease 
slowly  and  by  degrees.  Sometimes,  while 
she  was  nursing  her  little  girl,  he  would 
snatch  the  child  away  from  on  her  breast 
and  lay  it  upon  the  roof,  on  the  edge 
of  the  gutter,  or  hide  it,  but  without  ever 
harming  it.  Sometimes  he  would  upset 
all  the  furniture,  or  smash  to  pieces 
saucepans,  plates  and  other  earthenware 
which,  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  he  res- 

44  Daemonialitas  '' 

deprecabatur  ab  ea  concubitum,  et  dum 
ipsa  de  more  constans  resisteret,  infurorem 
actus  Incubus  abscessitj  et  infra  breve  tem- 
poris  spatium  reversus  est,  secum  ferens 
magnam  copiam  laminarum  saxearum, 
quibus  Genuenses  in  civitate  sua  et  iiniversa 
Liguria  domos  iegunt,  et  ex  ipsis  fabri- 
cavit  murum  circa  lectum  tantce  altitudinis, 
ut  ejus  conopeum  adcequaret,  unde  necesse 
fuit  scalis  uti,  si  debuerunt  de  cubili  sur- 
gere.  Murus  autem  fuit  absque  calce,  et 
ipso  destructo,  saxa  in  angulo  seposita, 
quce  ibi  per  duos  dies  remanserunt  visa  a 
multis,  qui  ad  spectaculum  convenerant ;  et 
post  biduum  disparuerunt. 

Invitaverat  maritus  ejus  in  die  S.  Ste- 
phani  quosdam  amicos  viros  mi li tares  ad 
prandium,  et  pro  hospitum  dignitate  dapes 
paraverat;  dum  de  more  lavantur  manus 
ante  accubitum,  disparet  in  momento  mensa 
parata  in  triclinio;  disparent  obsoniacuncta, 
alia,  caldaria,  patince,  ac  omnia  vasa  in 
coquina;  disparent  amphorce,  canthari,  ca- 
lices  parati  ad  potum.  Attoniti  ad  hoc  stu- 
pent  commensales,  qui  erant  octo,  inter 
quos  Dux  peditum  Hispanus  ad  alios  con- 
versus  ait : «  Ne  paveatis,  ista  est  illusio, 

Demonialitjr  *  46 

tored  tho  their  former  state.  One  night  that 
she  whas  lying  with  her  husband,  the  Incu- 
bus, appearing  in  his  customary  shape, 
vehemently  urged  his  demand  which  she 
resisted  as  usual.  The  Incubus  withdrew 
in  a  rage,  and  shortly  came  back  with  a 
large  load  of  those  flag  stones  which  the 
Genoese,  and  the  inhabitants  ofLiguriain 
general,  use  for  roofing  their  houses.  With 
those  stones  he  built  around  the  bed  a  wall 
so  high  that  it  reached  the  tester,  and  that 
the  couple  could  not  leave  their  bed  with- 
out using  a  ladder.  This  wall  however  was 
built  up  without  lime;  when  pulled  down, 
the  flags  were  laid  by  in  a  corner  where, 
during  two  days,  they  were  seen  by  many 
who  came  to  look  at  them ;  they  then  disap- 

On  S.  Stephen's  day,  the  husband  had 
asked  some  military  friends  to  dinner,  and, 
to  do  honour  to  his  guests,  had  provided  a 
substantial  repast.  Whilst  they  were,  as 
customary,  washing  their  hands  before 
taking  their  seats,  suddenly  vanished  the 
table  dressed  in  the  dining-room ;  all  the 
dishes,  saucepans,  kettles,  plates  and  croc- 
kery in  the  kitchen  vanished  likewise,  as 
well  as  the  jugs,  bottles  and  glasses. You  may 
imagine  the  surprise,the  stupor  of  the  guests, 
eight  in    number;   amongst  them  was  a 

46  Daemonialitas 

»  sed  pro  certo  mensa  in  loco  in  quo  erat^ 
»  adhuc  est,  et  modo  modo  earn  tactu  perci- 
»  piam. »  Hisque  dictis  circuibat  coenaculum 
manibus  extentis,  tentans  mensam  depre- 
hendere,  sed  cum  post  multos  circuitus 
incassum  laborasset,  et  nil  printer  aerem 
tangeret,  irrisus  fuit  a  cceteris  ;  cumque 
jam  grandis  esset  prandii  hora,  pallium 
proprium  eorum  unusquisque  sumpsit  pro- 
priam  dbmum  petiturus.  Jam  erant  omnes 
prope  januam  domus  in  procinctu  eundi, 
associati  a  marito  vexatce  mulieriSt  urba- 
7iitatis  causa,  cum  grandem  quendam  stre- 
pitum  in  coenaculo  audiunt  Subsistunt  pa- 
rumper  ad  cognoscendum  causam  strepitus, 
et  accurrens  famula  nuntiat  in  coquina  vasa 
nova  obsoniis  plena  apparuisse,  mensamque 
in  coenaculo  jam  paratam  esse  restitutam. 
Revertuntur  in  coenaculum^  et  stupent  men- 
sam mappis  et  manutergiis  insolitis,  salino^ 
et  lancibus  insolitis  argenteis,  salsamentiSy 
ac  obsoniis,  quce  domi  parata  non  fueranty 
instructam.  A  latere  magna  erecta  erat  cre- 
dential supra  quam  optimo  ordine  stabant 
calices  crystallinis,  argentini  et  aurei,  cum 
variis  amphoris,  lagenis,  cantharis  plenis 
vinis  extefis,  puta  Cretensi,  Campano, 
Canariensi^  RhenanOy  etc.  In  coquina  pa- 
riter  in  olliSy  et  vasis  it  idem  in  ea  domo 
nunquam  visis,  varia  obsonia.  Dubitarunt 

Demoniality  47 

Spanish  Captain  of  infantry,  who,  addres- 
sing the  company,  said  to  them  : «  Do  not  be 
»  frightened,  it  is  but  a  trick  :  the  table  is 
»  certainly  still  where  it  stood,  and  I  shall 
»  soon  find  it  by  feeling  for  it  ».  Having 
thus  spoken,  he  paced  round  the  room 
with  outstretched  arms  ,  endeavouring  to 
lay  hold  of  the  table;  but  when,  after  many 
circuitous  perambulations,  it  was  apparent 
that  he  laboured  in  vain  and  grasped  at 
nought  but  thin  air,  he  was  laughed  at  by 
his  friends  ;  and  it  being  already  high  time 
for  having  dinner,  each  guest  took  up  his 
cloak  and  set  about  to  return  home.  They 
had  already  reached  the  street-door  with  the 
husband,  who,  out  of  politeness,  was  atten- 
ding them,  when  they  heard  a  great  noise 
in  the  dining-room :  they  stood  to  ascer- 
tain the  cause  thereof,  and  presently  the  ser- 
vant came  up  to  announce  that  the  kitchen 
was  stocked  with  new  vessels  filled  with 
food,  and  that  the  table  was  standing 
again  in  its  former  place.  Having  gone 
back  to  the  dining-room,  they  were  stupe- 
fied to  see  the  table  was  laid,  with  cloths, 
napkins,  salt-cellars,  and  trays  that  did  not 
belong  to  the  house,  and  with  food  which 
had  not  been  cooked  there.  On  a  large 
sideboard  all  were  arrayed  in  perfect  order 
crystal,  silver  and  gold  chalices,  with  all 

48  Daemonialitas 

prius  nonnulli  ex  iis  eas  dapes  gustare, 
sed  confirmati  ab  aliis  accubuerunt,  et  ex- 
quisitissime  omnia  condita  repererunt ,-  ac 
immediate  a  prandio^  dum  omnes  pro  usu 
illius  tempores  ad  ignem  sedent,  omnia  us- 
tensilia  cum  reliquiis  ciborum  disparuere^ 
et  repertce  sunt  antiquce  domus  supellecti' 
les  simul  cum  dapibus,  quce  prius  paratce 
fuerant ;  et  quod  mirum  est^  convivce  omnes 
saturati  sunt,  ita  ut  nullus  eorum  coenam 
sumpserit  prce  prandii  lautitia.  Quo  con- 
vincitur  cibos  appositos  reales/uisse^  et  non 
ex  prcestigio  reprcesentatos. 

Intered  effluxerant  tnulti  menses,  ex  quos 
coeperat  hujusmodi  persecutio :  et  mulier 
votum  fecit  B.  Bernardino  Feltrensi,  cu- 
jus  sacrum  corpus  veneratur  in  Ecclesia 
S.  Jacobi  prope  murum  illius  urbis,  ince- 
dendi  per  annum  integrum  indutam  panno 
griseo^  et  chordulato,  quo  utuntur  Fratres 
Minor es,  de  quorum  ordiite  fuit  B.  Ber- 
nardinus,  ut  per  ipsius  patrocihium  a  tanta 
Incubi  vexatione  liberaretur.  Et  de  facto 


Demonialitjr  49 

kind  of  amphoras,  decanters  and  cups  filled 
with  foreign  wines,  from  the  Isle  of  Crete, 
Campania,  the  Canaries,  the  Rhine,  etc. 
In  the  kitchen  there  was  also  an  abundant 
variety  of  meats  in  saucepans  and  dishes 
that  had  never  been  seen  there  before.  At 
first,  some  of  the  guests  hesitated  whether 
they  should  taste  of  that  food;  however, 
encouraged  by  others ,  they  sat  down,  and 
soon  partook  of  the  meal,  which  was  found 
exquisite.  Immediately  afterwards,  as  they 
were  sitting  before  a  seasonable  fire,  every 
thing  vanished  at  once,  the  dishes  and  the 
leavings,  and  in  their  stead  reappeared  the 
cloth  of  the  house  and  the  victual  which  had 
been  previously  cooked ;  but,  for  a  won- 
der, all  the  guests  were  satisfied,  so  that  no 
one  thought  of  supper  after  such  a  magnifi- 
cent dinner.  A  clear  proof  that  the  substitu- 
ted viands  were  real  and  nowise  fictitious. 
This  kind  of  persecution  had  been  going 
on  some  months,  when  the  lady  betook 
herself  to  the  blessed  Bernardine  of  Feltri, 
whose  body  is  worshipped  in  the  church 
of  St  James,  a  short  distance  from  the 
walls  of  the  city.  She  made  a  vow  to  him 
that  she  would  wear,  during  a  whole 
twelve-month,  a  grey  frock,  tied  round 
her  waist  with  a  piece  of  cord,  and  such  as 
is  worn  by  the  Minor  Brethren,  the  order 


5o  Dsemonialitas 

die  28  SeptembriSy  qui  est  pervigilium 
Dedicationis  S.  Michaelis  Archangeli,  et 
festum  B.  Bernardini,  ipsa  veste  votiva  in- 
duta  est.  Mane  sequenti,  quod  est  festum 
S.  Michaelis,  ibat  vexata  ad  ecclesiam  S. 
Michaelis,  quce  ut  diximus  erat  parochialis 
ipsius,  circa  medium  mane,  dum  frequens 
populus  ad  illam  conjluebat ;  et  cum  perve- 
nisset  ad  medium  platece  ecclesice,  omnia 
ipsius  indumenta  et  ornnmenta  ceciderunt 
in  terram  et  rapta  vento  statim  disparuerunt, 
ipsa  relicta  nuda.  Adfuerunt  sorte  inter 
alios  duo  equites  viri  longcevi,  qui  factum 
videntes,  dejectis  ab  humero  propriis  palliis 
mulieris  nuditatem,  ut  potuerunt,  velarunt^ 
et  rhedce  impositam  ad  propriam  domum 
duxerunt.  Vestes  et  jocalia  quce  rapuerat 
'  Incubus^  non  restituit  nisi  post  sex  menses. 

Multa  alia,  et  quidem  stUpenda  opefatuS 
est  contra  eam  Incubus,  quce  tcedet  exscri- 
bere,  et  per  multos  annos  in  ea  tentatione 

Demoniality  5 1 

to  which  had  belonged  the  blessed  Ber- 
nardine;  this  she  vowed,  in  the  hope  of 
being,  through  his  intercession,  at  last  rid 
of  the  persecution  of  the  Incubus.  And  ac- 
cordingly, on  the  28'^  of  September,  the 
vigil  of  the  Dedication  of  the  Archangel  S. 
Michael,  and  the  festival  of  the  blessed 
Bernardine,  she  assumed  the  votive  robe. 
The  next  morning,  which  was  S.  Michael's 
festival,  the  afflicted  woman  proceeded  to 
the  church  of  St  Michael,  her  own  pa- 
rish, already  mentioned  ;  it  was  about 
ten  o'clock,  a  time  when  a  crowd  of  people 
were  going  to  mass.  She  had  no  sooner  set 
foot  on  the  treshold  of  the  church,  than  her 
clothes  and  ornaments  fell  off  to  the  ground, 
and  disappeared  in  a  gust  of  wind,  leaving 
her  stark  naked.  There  happened  fortuna- 
tely to  be  among  the  crowd  two  cavaliers 
of  mature  age,  who,  seeing  what  had  taken 
place ,  hastened  to  divest  themselves  of 
their  cloaks  with  which  they  concealed,  as 
well  as  they  could,  the  woman's  nudity, 
and  having  put  her  into  a  vehicle,  accom- 
panied her  home.  The  clothes  and  trinkets 
taken  by  the  Incubus  were  not  restored  by 
him  before  six  months  had  elapsed. 

I  might  relate  many  other  most  surprising 
tricks  which  that  Incubus  played  on  her, 
were  it  not  wearisome.  Suffice  it  to  say  that, 

52  Dsemonialitas 

permansit;  tandemque  Incubus  videns  ope- 
ram  in  ea  perdere,  destitit  a  tarn  impor- 
tuna  et  insolita  vexatione. 

29.  In  hoc  casii,  et  similibus  qui  passim 
audiuntur  et  leguntur,  Incubus  ad  nullum 
actum  contra  Religionem  tentat,  sed  solum 
contra  castitatem.  Hinc  fit  quod  ipsi  con- 
sentiens  non  peccat  irreligiositate^ .  sed  in- 

30.  In  confesso  autem  est  apud  Theolo- 
gos  et  PhilosophoSj  quod  ex  commixtione 
hominis  cum  D(^mone  aliquot ies  nascuntur 
homines,  et  tali  modo  nasciturum  esse  An^ 
tichristum  opinantur  nonnulli  Doctores : 
Bellarm.  lib.  i,  de  Rom.  Pont.,  cap.  12; 
Suare:(,  tom.  2,  disp.  54,  sec.  i.;  Maluend.f 
de  Antichr.,  /.  2.,  c.  8.  Immo  observant, 
quod,  qui  gignuntur  ab  hujusmodi  Incubis, 
naturali  causa  etiam  evenit,  ut  nascantur 
grandes,  robustissimi ,  ferocissimi,  super- 
bissimi^ac  nequissimi,  ut  scripsit  Maluenda, 
loc.  cit.,  {J  Ad  illud;  et  hujus  rationem  re- 
citat  ex  Vallesio  Archia.  Reggio.  Sac. 
Philosoph.,  c.  8.,  dicente  quod  Incubi  sum- 
mittant  in  uteros  non  qualecumque,  neque 
quantumcumque  semen,  sed  plurimum, 
crassissimum,  calidissimum,  spiritibus  af- 


Demoniality  53 

for  a  number  of  years  he  persevered  in  his 
temptation  of  her,  but  that  finding  at  last 
that  he  was  losing  his  pains,  he.  desisted 
from  his  vexatious  importunities. 

29.  In  the  above  case,  as  well  as  in  others 
that  may  be  heard  or  read  of  occasionally, 
the  Incubus  attempts  no  act  against  Reli- 
gion ;  he  merely  assails  chastity.  In  conse- 
quence, consent  is  not  a  sin  through  un- 
godliness, but  through  incontinence. 

30.  Now,  it  is  undoubted  by  Theologians 
and  philosophers  that  carnal  intercourse 
between  mankind  and  the  Demon  someti- 
mes gives  birth  to  human  beings  ;  that  is 
how  is  to  be  born  the  Antichrist,  according 
to  some  Doctors,  such  as  Bellarmin,  Sua- 
rez,  Maluenda,  etc.  They  further  observe 
that,  from  a  natural  cause,  the  children 
thus  begotten  by  Incubi  are  tall,  very 
hardy  and  bold,  very  proud  and  wicked. 
Thus  writes  Maluenda;  as  for  the  cause, 
he  gives  it  from  Vallesius,  Archphysician 
in  Reggio  :  «  What  Incubi  introduce  in  iite- 
ros,  is  not  qualecumque  neque  quantum^ 
cumque  semen,  but  abundant,  very  thick, 
very  warm,  rich  in  spirits  and  free  from 
serosity.  This  moreover  is  an  easy  thing 
for  them,  since  they  have  but  to  choose 

54  Daemonialitas 

fluens  ct  seri  expers.  Id  vero  est  eis  facile 
conquirere,  deligendo  homines  calidos,  ro- 
bustos,  et  abondantes  multo  semine,  quibus 
succumbant,  deinde  et  mulieres  tales,  qui- 
bus incumbant,  atque  utrisque  voluptatem 
solito  majorem  afferendo,  tanto  enim  abun- 
dantius  emittitur  semen,  quanto  cum  ma- 
jori  voluptate  excernitur.  Hcec  Vallesius. 
Conjirmat  vero  Maluenda  supradicta,  pro- 
bando,  ex  variis  et  classicis  Auctoribus,  ex 
hujusmodi  concubitu  natos  :  Romulum  ac 
Remum,  Liv.  decad.  i  ;  Plutarch.^  in  Vit. 
Romul.  et  Parallel.  ;  Servium  Tullium^ 
sextum  regem  Romanorum,  Dionys.  Hali- 
car.,  lib.  4,  Plin.^  lib.  36.,  c.  27;  Platonem 
Philosophum,  Laer.  /.,  9.  de  Vit.  Philos.; 
D.  Hyeron.^  1.  i.  Controvers.  Jovinian. ; 
Alexandrum  Magnum,  Plutarch.,  in  Vit. 
Alex.  M.;  Quint.  Curt.,  I.  4,  deGest.  Alex. 
M.;  Seleucum,  regem  Syrice,  Just.,  Hist., 
/.  1 5 ;  Appian.,  in  Syriac  ;  Scipionem  Afri- 
canum  Majorem,  Liv.j  decad.  3,  lib.  6;  Cce- 
sarem  Augustum  Imperatorem^  Sueton.,  in 
Octa.,  c.  94 ;  Aristomenem  Messenium, 
strenuissimum  ducem  Grcecorum ,  Strabo, 
de  Sit  Orb.,  lib.S;  Pausan.,  de  Rebus  Grae- 
cor.,  lib.  3;  et  Merlinum,  seu  Melchinum 
Anglicum  ex  Incubo  et  Filia  Caroli  Magni 
Moniali,  Haulier.,  volum.  2,  Generat.  7, 
quod  etiamdeMartino  Luthero^perditissimo 

Demoniality  55 

ardent,  robust  men,  et  abundantes  multo 
semine,  quibus  succumbant,  and  then  wo- 
men of  a  like  constitution,  quibus  incum- 
bant,  taking  care  that  both  shall  enjoy 
voluptatem  solito  majorem,  tanto  enim 
abundanthis  emittitur  semen^  quanta  cum' 
majori  voluptate  excernitur.  »  Those  are 
the  words  of  Vallesius,  confirmed  by  Ma- 
luenda  who  shows,  from  the  testimony  of 
various  Authors,  mostly  classical,  that 
such  associations  gave  birth  to  :  Romulus 
and  Remus,  according  to  Livy  and 
Plutarch;  Servius-Tullius,  the  sixth  king 
of  Rome,  according  to  Dyonisius  of  Halt- 
carnassus  and  Pliny  the  Elder;  Plato  the 
Philosopher,  according  to  Diogenes  Laer- 
tius  and  Saint  Hieronymus;  Alexander 
the  Great,  according  to  Plutarch  and 
Quintus-Curtius ;  Seleucus,  king  of  Syria, 
according  to  Justinus  and  Appianus; 
Scipio  Africanus  the  Elder,  according  to 
Livy;  the  emperor  Caesar  Augustus, 
according  to  Suetonius;  Aristomenes  the 
Messenian,  an  illustrious  Greek  com- 
mander, according  to  Strabo  and  Pausanias ; 
as  also  Merlin  or  Melchin  the  Englishman, 
born  from  an  Incubus  and  a  nun,  the 
daughter  of  Charlemagne  ;  and,  lastly,  as 
shown  by  the  writings  oiCochlceus  quoted 
by  MalUenda,  that  damned  Heresiarch 
ycleped  Martin  Luther. 

56  Daemonialitas 

Heresiarcha   scribit  Cochlceus  apud  Ma- 
luendam,  de  Antich.,  lib.  2,  c.  6,  §  Caeterum. 

•  3 1 .  Salva  tamen  tot^  et  tantorum  Docto- 
rum^  qui  in  ea  opinione  conveniunt  ^  reve- 
rentia^  non  video  ^  quomodo  ipsorum  sen^ 
tentia  possit  subsistere;  turn  quia,  ut 
optime  opinatur  Pererius,  torn.  1,  in  Ge- 
nes., cap.  6,  disp.  5,  tota  vis  et  efficacia 
humani  seminis  consistit  in  spiritibus,  qui 
difflantur,  et  evanescunt  statim  ac  sunt 
extra  genitalia  vasa,  a  quibus  foventur  et 
conservantur,  ut  scribunt  Medici.  Nequit 
proinde  Dcemon  semen  acceptum  conser- 
vare,  ita  ut  aptum  sit  generationi,  quia 
vas,  quodcuinque  sit  illud,  in  quo  semen 
conservare  tentaret,  oporteret  quod  caleret 
calore  assimetro  a  nativo  organorum 
humance  generationis ;  similarem  enim  a 
nullo  alio  pra^terquam  ab  organis  ipsis 
habere  potest  generatio.  Tum  quia  gene- 
ratio  actus  vitalis  est,  per  quern  homo 
generans  de  propria  substantia  semen  defert 
per  organa  naturalia  ad  locum  generationi 
congruentem.  In  casu  autem  delatio  seminis 
non  potest  esse  actus  vitalis  hominis  gene- 
rantis,  quia  ab  eo  non  infertur  in  matri- 
cem  ,'  proinde  nee  did  potest,   quod  homo 

Demoniality  5  7 

3i.  However,  with  due  deference  to  so 
many  and  such  learned  Doctors,  I  hardly 
see  how  their  opinion  can  bear  examina- 
tion. For,  as  Pererius  truly  observes  in  his 
Commentary  on  the  Genesis,  chapt.  6,  the 
whole  strengh  and  efficiency  of  the  human 
sperm  reside  in  the  spirits  which  evapo- 
rate and  vanish  as  soon  as  issued  from  the 
genital  vessels  wherein  they  were  warmly 
stored :  ail  medical  men  agree  on  that  point. 
It  is  consequently  not  possible  that  the 
Demon  should  preserve  in  a  fit  state  for 
generation  the  sperm  he  has  received ; 
for  it  were  necessary  that  \vhatever  vessel 
he  endeavoured  to  keep  it  in  should  be 
equally  warm  with  the  human  genital  or- 
gans, the  warmth  of  which  is  nowhere  to 
be  met  with  but  in  those  organs  themselves. 
Now,  in  a  vessel  where  that  warmth  is  not 
intrinsical  but  extraneous,  the  spirits  get 
altered,  and  no  generation  can  take  place. 
TheVe  is  this  other  objection,  that  genera- 
tion is  a  vital  act  by  which  man,  begetting 
from  his  own  substance,  carries  the  sperm 
through  natural  organs  to  the  spot  which 
is  appropriate  to  generation.  On  the  con- 
trary, in  this  particular  case,  the  introduc- 
tion of  sperm  cannot  be  a  vital  act  of  the 
man  who  begets,  since  it  is  not  carried 
into  the  womb  by  his  agency  ;  and,  for 

58  Daemonialitas 

eujus  est  semen,  generet  foetuniy  qui  ex  eo 

nascitur.  Neque  Incubus  ipsius  pater  diet 
potest;  quia  de  ipsius  substantia  semen  non 
est.  Hinc  fiet,  quod  nascetur  homo,  cujus 
nemo  pater  sit,  quod  est  incongruum,  Tum 
quia  in  patre  naturaliter  generante  duplex 
causalitas  concurrit,  nempe  materialis,  quia 
semen,  quod  materia  generationis.,  minis- 
trat,  et  efficiens^  quia  agens  principale  est 
in  generatione,  ut  communiter  statuunt 
Philosophi.  In  casu  autem  nostro  homo 
ministrando  solum  semen,  puram  materiam 
exhiberet  absque  ulla  actione  in  ordine  ad 
generationem ;  proinde  non  posset  dici 
pater  Jilii  qui  nasceretur  :  et  hoc  est  con- 
tra id,  quod  homo  genitus  ab  Incubo  non 
est  illius  filius^  sed  est  filius  ejus  viri^  a 
quo  Incubus  semen  sumpsit. 

32.  Prceterea  omni  probabilitate  caret 
quod  scribit  Vallesius,  et  ex  eo  recitavimus 

Demoniality  5  9 

the  same  cause,  it  cannot  be  said  that  the 
man,  whose  sperm  it  was,  has  begotten 
the  fetus  which  proceeds  from  it.  Nor  can 
the  Incubus  be  deemed  its  father,  since 
the  sperm  does  not  issue  from  his  own 
substance.  Consequentially,  a  child  would 
be  born  without  a  father,  which  is  absurd. 
Third  objection  :  when  the  father  begets 
in  the  course  of  nature,  there  is  a  concur- 
rence of  two  casualties  :  the  one,  material, 
ifor  he  provides  the  sperm  which  is  the 
matter  of  generation  ;  the  other,  efficient, 
for  he  is  the  principal  agent  of  generation, 
as  Philosophers  agree  in  declaring.  But, 
in  this  case,  the  man  who  only  provided 
the  sperm  would  contribute  but  a  mere 
material,  without  any  action  tending  to 
generation ;  he  could  therefore  not  be 
regarded  as  the  father  of  the  child  begot- 
ten under  those  circumstances ;  and  this 
is  opposed  to  the  notion  that  the  child 
begotten  by  an  Incubus  is  not  his  son,  but 
the  son  of  the  man  whose  sperm  the 
Incubus  has  taken. 

32.  Besides,  there  is  not  a  shadow  of 
probability  in  what  was  written  by  Valle- 
Sius  and  quoted  from  him  by  us  {Vid^ 
supra,  «•>  3o);and  1  wonder  that  any  thing 
80  extravagant  should  have  fallen  from 

6o  Daemonialitas 

supra  n"  3o;  mirorque  a  doctissimi  viri 
calamo  talia  excidisse.  Notissimum  enim 
est  apud  Physicos^  quod  magnitudo  foetus 
non  est  a  quantitate  molis,  sed  est  a  quart- 
titate  virtutis^  hoc  est  spirituum  in  semine  : 
ab  ea  enim  tota  generationis  ratio  dependet^ 
ut  optime  testatur  Michael  Ettmullerus, 
Instit.  Medic.  Physiolog.,  car.  22,  thes.  i, 
fol.  m.,  39,  scribens  :  Tota  generationis 
ratio  dependet  a  spiritu  genitali  sub  cras- 
sioris  materiee  involucro  excreto ;  ista  ma- 
teria seminis  crassa  nullo  modo,  vel  in 
utero  subsistente,  vel  seu  materia  foetum 
constituente  :  sed  solus  spiritus  genitalis 
maris  unitus  cum  spiritu  genitali  mulieris 
in  poros  uteri,  seu,  quod  rarius  fit,  in  tubos 
uteri  se  insinuat,  indeque  uterum  fecun- 
dum  reddit.  Quid  ergo  facere  potest  magna 
quantitas  seminis  ad  foetus  magnitudinem? 
Prceterea  nee  semper  verum  est,  quod  tales 
geniti  ab  Incubis  magnitudine  molis  cor- 
porece  insignes  sint :  Alexander  enim  Ma- 
gnus, qui,  ut  diximus,  natus  taliter  scri- 
bitur,  statura  pusillus  erat ;  unde  carmen, 

Magnus  Alexander  corpore  parvus  erat. 

Item  quamvis  taliter  concepti  supra  cceteros 
homines  ex cellant,  non  tamen  hoc  semper 
est  in  vitiis^   sed  aliquando   in  virtutibus 

Demoniality  6 1 

the  pen  of  such  a  learned  man.  Medical 
men  are  well  aware  that  the  size  of  the 
fetus  depends,  not  indeed  on  the  quantity 
of  matter,  but  on  the  quantity  of  virtue, 
that  is  to  say  of  spirits  held  by  the  sperm; 
there  lies  the  whole  secret  of  generation, 
as  is  well  observed  by  Michael  EttmuUer, 
Institut.  Medic.  Physiolog. :  «  Generation)), 
says  he,  «  entirely  depends  upon  the  genital 
spirit  contained  within  an  envelope  of 
thicker  matter;  that  spermatic  matter 
does  not  remain  in  the  uterus,  and  has  no 
share  in  the  formation  of  the  fetus ;  it  is 
but  the  genital  spirit  of  the  male,  com- 
bined with  the  genital  spirit  of  the  female, 
that  permeates  the  pores,  or,  less  frequen- 
tly, the  tubes  of  the  uterus,  which  it  fecun- 
dates by  that  means.  ))  Of  what  moment 
can  therefore  the  quantity  of  sperm  be  for 
the  size  of  the  fetus?  Besides,  it  is  not 
always  a  fact  that  men  thus  begotten  by 
Incubi  are  remarkable  for  the  huge  pro- 
portions of  their  body  :  Alexander  the 
Great,  for  instance,  who  is  said  to  have 
been  thus  born,  as  we  have  mentioned, 
was  very  short ;  as  the  poet  said  of  him  : 

Magnus  Alexander  corpore  parvus  erat. 

Besides,  although  it  is  generally  a  fact 
that  those  who  are  thus   begotten  excel 


62  Daemonialitas 

etiam  in  moralibus,  ut  patet  in  Scipione 
A/ricano,  Ccesare  Augusto,  et  Platone 
Philosopho^  de  qiiibus  Livius^  Suetonius  et 
Laertius  respective  scribunt,  quod  optimi 
in  moribus  fuere ,'  ut  proinde  arguere  pos- 
simus^  quod  si  alii  eodem  modo  geniti 
pessimi  fuere,  hoc  non  fuerit  ex  hoc^  quod 
fuerint  ab  Incubo  geniti,  sed  quia  tales  ex 
propria  arbitrio  exstitere. 

Pariter  ex  textu  Sacrce  Scriptures,  Gen., 
c.  6,  V.  4,  habemus  quod  gigantes  nati  sunt 
ex  concubitu  filiorum  Dei  cum  jiliabus 
hominum^  et  hoc  ad  litteram  sacri  textus. 
Gigantes  autem  homines  erant  statura 
magna,  ut  eos  vocat  Baruch,  c.  3,  v.  26,  et 
excedente  communem  hominum  proceri^ 
tatem.  Monstruosa  statura,  robore,  latro- 
ciniis,  et  tyrannide  insignes :  unde  Gigantes 
per  sua  scelera  fuerunt  maxima,  et  potis- 
sima  causa  Diluvii^  ait  Cornelius  a  Lapid. 
in  Gen*,  c.  6,  v.  4,  §  Burgensis.  Non  qua' 
drat  autem  quorumdam  expositio,  quod 
nomine  filiorum  Dei  veniant  filii  Seth,  et 
ifocabulo  filiarum  hominum  filice  Cain,  eo 
quod  illi  erant  pietati,  Religioni,  et  cceteris 
virtutibus  addicti,  descendentes    autem   a 

Demoniality  63 

other  men,  yet  such  superiority  is  not 
always  shown  by  their  vices,  but  some- 
times by  their  virtues  and  even  their 
morals;  Scipio  Africanus,  for  instance, 
Caesar  Augustus  and  Plato  the  Philosopher, 
as  is  recorded  of  each  of  them  respectively 
by  Livy,  Suetonius  and  Diogenes  Laer- 
tius,  had  excellent  morals.  Whence  may 
be  inferred  that,  if  other  individuals 
begotten  in  the  same  way  have  been 
downright  villains,  it  was  not  owing  to 
their  being  born  of  an  Incubus,  but  to 
their  having,  of  their  own  free  will,  chosen 
to  be  such. 

We  also  read  in  the  Testament,  Genesis, 
chap.  6,  verse  4,  that  giants  were  born 
when  the  sons  of  God  came  in  unto  the 
daughters  of  men  :  that  is  the  very  letter 
of  the  sacred  text.  Now,  those  giants  were 
men  oi  great  stature,  says  ^arwcA,  chap.  3, 
verse  26,  and  far  superior  to  other  men. 
Not  only  were  they  distinguished  by  their 
huge  size,  but  also  by  their  physical 
power,  their  plundering  habits  and  their 
tyranny.  Through  their  criminal  excesses 
the  Giants  were  the  primary  and  principal 
cause  of  the  Flood,  according  to  Cornelius 
a  Lapide,  in  his  Commentarx  on  Genesis. 
Some  contend  that  by  Sons  of  God  are 
meant  the  sons  of  Seth,  and  by  Daughters 

64  Daemonialitas 

Cain  vice  versa  :  nam  salva  opinantiuniy 
Chrysost.,  CyrilL,  Theodor.  Rupert. 
Hilar,  in  Psaim.  1 32,  apud  CorneL,  a  Lap.^ 
c.  6;  C,  V.  2,  §  Verum  dies,  reverentia, 
talis  expositio  non  cohceret  sensui  patenti 
litterce ;  ait  enim  Scriptura,  quod  ex  con- 
junctione  talium  nati  sunt  homines  mon- 
struosce  proceritatis  corpore<je  :  ante  illam 
ergo  tales  gigantes  non  extiterunt  :  quod 
si  ex  ea  orti  sunt^  hoc  non  potuit  esse  ex 
eo,  quod  jilii  Seth  coivissent  cum  filiabus 
Cain,  quia  illi  erant  staturce  ordinarice , 
prout  etiam  jilice  Cain,  unde  oriri  ex  his 
naturaliter  non  potuerunt  nisi  Jilii  statures 
ordinarice  :  si  ergo  monstruosa  statura  filii 
nati  sunt  ex  tali  conjunctione,  hoc  fuit., 
quia  non  fuerunt  prognati  ex  ordinaria 
conjunctione  ^  viri  cum  muliere,  sed  ex 
Incubis  dcemonibus  qui  ratione  natures 
ipsorum  optime  possunt  vocari  filii  Dei.,  et 
in  hac  sententia  sunt  Philosophi  Platonici., 
et  Franciscus  Georgius  Venetus^  tom.  i, 
problem.  74  :  nee  dissentiunt  ab  eadem 
Joseph.  Hebrceus^  Philo  Judceus^  S.  Jus- 
tinus  Martyr^  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  et 
Tertullianus,  Joseph.  Hebrceus,  Antiq.,  /. 
I.;  Philo,  I.  de  Gigant.;  5.  Justinus  M., 
Apolog.  I.;  Clemens  Alex.,  lib.  3;  TertulL, 
lib.  de  Habit.  Mul.,  apud  Cornel..,  loc.cit.,- 
Hugo  de  S.  Victor. f  Annot.  in  Gen.,  c.  6, 

Demonialitjr  6  5 

of  men  the  daughters  of  Cain,  because  the 
former  practiced  piety,  religion  and  every 
other  virtue,  whilst  the  descendants  of 
Cain  were  quite  the  reverse;  but,  with  all 
due  deference  to  Chrysostom,  Cyrillus, 
Hilarius  and  others  who  are  of  that  opi- 
nion, it  must  be  conceded  that  it  clashes 
with  the  obvious  meaning  of  the  text.  Scrip- 
ture says,  in  fact,  that  of  the  conjunction  of 
the  above  mentioned  were  born  men  of 
huge  bodily  size  :  consequently,  those  giants 
were  not  previously  in  existence,  and  if  their 
birth  was  the^  result  of  that  conjunction, 
it  cannot  be  ascribed  to  the  intercourse  of 
the  sons  of  Seth  with  the  daughters  of 
Cain,  who  being  themselves  of  ordinary 
stature,  could  but  procreate  children  of 
ordinary  stature.  Therefore,  if  the  inter- 
course in  question  gave  birth  to  beings  of 
huge  stature,  the  reason  is  that  it  was  not 
the  common  connection  between  man  and 
woman ,  but  the  performance  of  Incubi 
Demons  who,  from  their  nature,  may  very 
well  be  styled  sons  of  God.  Such  is  the  opi- 
nion of  the  Platonist  Philosophers  and  of 
Francis  Georges  the  Venetian;  nor  is  it 
discrepant  from  that  of  Josephus  the  His- 
torian, Philo  the  Jew,  S.  Justinus  the 
Martyr,  Clement  of  Alexandria,  and  Ter- 
tuliian,  who  look  upon  Incubi  as  corporeal 


66  Daemonialitas 

qui  opinantur  illos  fuisse  Angelas  quos- 
nam  corporeos  qui  in  luxuriam  cum  mulie- 
ribus  delapsi  sunt  :  ut  enim  infra  osten- 
demus,  istce  duce  sententice  in  unam  et  eamdem 

33.  Si  ergo  Incubi  tales,  utfert  communis 
sententia,  Gigantes  genuerunt,  accepto  se^ 
mine  ah  homine,  juxta  id,  quod  supra 
dictum  est,  non  potuerunt  ex  illo  semine 
nasci  nisi  homines  ejusdem  staturce  plus 
minusve^  cum  eo  a  quo  semen  acceptum  est : 
nee  enim  facit  ad  altiorem  corporis  statu- 
ram  major  seminis  quantitas,  ita  utattracta 
insolite  aDcemone,  dum  Succubus  jit  homini, 
augeat  ultra  illius  staturam  enormiter  cor- 
pus  ab  eo  geniti ;  quia,  ut  supra  diximuSy 
hoc  residet  in  spiritu,  et  non  in  mole  semi- 
nis :  ut  proinde  necesse  sit  concludere, 
quod  ab  alio  semine,  quam  humano,  hujus- 
modi  gigantes  nati  sint,  et  proinde  Dcemon 
Incubus  non  humano,  sed  alio  semine  utatur 
ad  generationem.  Quid  igitur  dicendum  ? 

Demoniality  6^ 

Angels  who  have  allowed  themselves  to 
fall  into  the  sin  of  lewdness  with  women. 
Indeed,  as  shall  be  shown  hereafter,  though 
seemingly  distinct,  those  two  opinions  are 
but  one  and  the  same. 

33.  If  therefore  these  Incubi,  in  confor- 
mity with  general  belief,  have  begotten 
Giants  by  means  of  sperm  taken  from 
man,  it  is  impossible,  as  aforesaid,  that  of 
that  sperm  should  have  been  born  any  but 
men  of  approximately  the  same  size  as  he 
from  whom  it  came;  for  it  would  be  in  vain 
for  the  Demon,  when  acting  the  part  of  a 
Succubus,  to  draw  from  man  an  unwonted 
quantity  of  prolific  liquor  in  order  to  pro- 
create therefrom  children  of  higher  stature ; 
quantity  has  nothing  to  do  here,  since  all 
depends,  as  we  have  said,  upon  the  vitality 
of  that  liquor,  not  its  quantity.  We  are 
therefore  bound  to  infer  that  Giants  are 
born  of  another  sperm  than  man's,  and 
that,  consequently,  the  Incubus  Demon, 
for  the  purpose  of  generation,  uses  a  sperm 
which  is  not  man's.  But  then,  what  is  to 
be  said? 

68  Dsemonialitas 

34.  Quantum  ad  hoc^  sub  correctione 
Sanctce  Matris  Ecclesice,  et  mere  opinative 
dico,  Incubum  Dcemonem,  dum  mulieribus 
commiscetur,  ex  propria  ipsius-  semine 
hominem  generare. 

35.  Paradoxa  in  fide^  et  parum  sana 
nonnullis  videbitur  hcec  opinio;  sed  lecto- 
rem  meum  deprecor,  ut  judicium  non 
prcecipitet  de  ea  :  ut  enim  incivile  est  non- 
dum  tota  lege  perspecta  judicare,  ut 
Celsus,  lib.  24.  ff.  de  legib.  et  S.  C,  ait, 
ita  neque  damnanda  est  opinio^  nisi  prius 
examinatis,  ac  solutis  argumentis,  quibus 
innititur.  Ad  probandam  igitur  supra- 
datam  conclusionem,  nonnulla  sunt  neces- 
sario  prcemittenda. 

36.  Prcemittendum  primo  de  fide  est, 
quod  dentur  Creatures  pure  spirituals 
nullo  modo  de  materia  corporea  parti- 
cipanteSj  prout  habetur  ex  Concilio  La- 
teranensi,  sub  Innocentio  TertiOj  c.  Firm, 
de  Sum.  Trin.  et  Fid.  Cath.  Cone.  Eph. 
in  Epist.  Cyrill.  ad  Reggia,  et  alibi. 
Hujusmodi  autem  sunt  Angeli  beati,  et 
Dcemones  damnati  ad  ignem  perpetuum. 
Quamvis  vero   nonnulli    Doctores,    Bann. 

Demoniality  69 

34.' Subject  to  correction  by  our  Holy- 
Mother  Church,  and  as  a  mere  expression 
of  opinion^  I  say  that  the  Incubus  Demon, 
when  having  intercourse  with  women, 
bigets  the  human  fetus  from  his  own 

35.  To  many  that  proposition  will  seem 
heterodox  and  hardly  sensible;  but  I  beg 
of  my  reader  not  to  condemn  it  precipita- 
tely ;  for  if,  as  Celsus  says,  it  is  improper 
to  deliver  judgment  without  having  tho- 
roughly inquired  into  the  law,  no  less 
unfair  is  the  rejection  of  an  opinion,  before 
the  arguments  upon  which  it  rests  have 
been  weighed  and  confuted.  I  have  there- 
fore to  prove  the  above  conclusion,  and 
must  necessarily  premise  with  some  state- 

36.  Firstly,  I  premise,  as  an  article  of 
belief,  that  there  are  purely  spiritual  crea- 
tures, not  in  any  way  partaking  of  corpo- 
real matter,  as  was  ruled  by  the  Council 
of  Lateran,  under  the  pontificate  of  Inno- 
cent III.  Such  are  the  blessed  Angels, 
and  the  Demons  condemned  to  ever-lasting 
fire.  Some  Doctors,  it  is  true,  have  profes- 
sed, subsequently  even  to  this  Council, 
that  the  spirituality  of  Angels  and  Demons 

70       '  Daemonialitas 

par.  I.  q.  5.  ar.  i.  Can.  de  Loc.  Theol.  /. 
5.  c.  5.  Sixt.  sen  Bibliot.  San.  /.  5.  annot. 
8.,  Mirand.  Sum.  Concil.  v°.  Angelus, 
Molina,  p.  i.  q.  5o.,  ^.  i.>  Carran:^,, 
Annot.  ad  Synod.  7.,  etiam  post  Conci- 
lium illud  docuerint  spiritualitatem  Ange^ 
lorum  et  Dcemonum  non  esse  de  Jide,  ita 
ut  nonnulli  alii,  Bonav.  in  lib.  2.  sent.  dist. 
3.  q.  I.,  Scot,  de  Anim.  q.  i5.,  Cajet.  in 
Gen.  c.  4.,  Franc.  Georg.  Problem.  /.  2. 
c.  57.,  August.  Hyph.,  de  Daemon.,  /.  3. 
c.  3.,  scripserint  illos  esse  corporeoSy  et 
proinde  Angelos  Dcemonesque  corpore  et 
spiritu  constare  non  esse  propositionem 
hcereticam,  neque  erroneam,  probet  Bona- 
ventura  Baro,  Scot.  Defens.  torn.  9.  apo- 
log.  2.,  act.  I. J  p.  §  7.  :  tamen  quia  Con- 
cilium ipsum  statuit  de  fide  tenendum., 
Deum  esse  Creatorem  omnium  visibilium 
et  invisibilium,  spiritualium  et  corpora- 
lium,  qui  utramque  de  nihilo  condidit 
creaturam  spiritualem  et  corporalem  An- 
gelicam,  videlicet  ut  mundanam  :  ideo 
dico  de  fide  esse  quasdam  creaturas  dari 
mere  spirituales,  et  tales  esse  Angelos,  non 
quidem  omnes,  sed  quosdam. 

37.  Inaudita  forsan  erit  sententia  hcec,  sed 
non  destituta  erit  probabilitate .  Si  enim  a 
Theologis  tanta   inter  Angelos  diversitas 

Demonialitjr  7 1 

is  not  an  article  of  belief;  others  even 
have  asserted  that  they  are  corporeal, 
whence  Bonaventure  Baron  has  drawn  the 
conclusion  that  it  is  neither  heretical  nor 
erroneous  to  ascribe  to  Angels  and  Demons 
a  twofold  substance,  corporeal  and  spiritual. 
Yet,  the  Council  having  formally  declared 
it  to  be  an  article  of  belief  that  God  is  the 
maker  of  all  things  visible  and  invisible, 
spiritual  and  corporeal,  who  has  raised 
from  nothing  every  creature  spiritual  or 
corporeal.  Angelic  or  terrestrial^  I  contend 
it  is  an  article  of  belief  that  there  are  cer- 
tain merely  spiritual  creatures,  and  that 
such  are  Angels;  not  all  ofth£m,buta  cer- 
tain number. 

37.  It  may  seem  strange,  yet  it  must 
be  admitted  not  to  be  unlikely.  If,  in 
fact.  Theologians  concur  in  establishing 

72  Daemonialitas 

specifica^  et  proinde  essentialis  statuitur,  ut 
in  via  D.  Thomce^  p.  p.  5o,  ar.  4, 
plures  Angeli  nequeant  esse  in  eadem  spe- 
cie^ sed  quilibet  Angelus  propriam  speciem 
constituat,  profecto  nulla  invenitur  repu- 
gnantia,  quod  Angelorum  nonnulli  sint 
purissimi  spiritus,  et  proinde  excellentis- 
simce  naturce^  aliiautem  corporei^et  minus 
excellentes,  et  eorum  differentia  petatur 
per  corporeum  et  incorporeum.  Accedit 
quod  hac  sententia  facile  solvitur  alias  inso- 
lubilis  contradictio  inter  duo  Concilia 
CEcumenica^  nempe  Septimam  Synodum 
generalem,  et  dictum  Concilium  Later a- 
nense :  siquidem  in  ilia  Synodo,  qua?  est 
secunda  Niccena,  actione  quinta,  productus 
est  liber  Joannis  Thessalonicensis  scriptus 
contra  quemdam  Philosophum  gentilem,  in- 
quo  ita  habetur  :  De  Angelis  et  Archan- 
.  gelis,  atque  eorum  Potestatibus,  quibus 
nostras  Animas  adjungo,  ipsa  Catholica 
Ecclesia  sic  sentit,  esse  quidem  intelligi- 
biles,  sed  non  omnino  corporis  expertes, 
et  insensibiles,  ut  vos  Gentiles  dicitis, 
verum  tenui  corpore  praeditos,  et  aereo, 
sive  igneo,  sicut  scriptum  est  :  qui  facit 
Angelos  suos  spiritus,  et  ministros  suos 
ignem  urentem.  Et  infra  :  Quamquam 
autem  non  sint  ut  nos,  corporei,  utpote 
ex  quatuor    elementis,    nemo  tamen   vel 

Demoniality  73 

amongst  Angels  a  specific,  and  therefore  es- 
sential, diversity  so  considerable  that,  ac- 
cording to  St.  Thomas,  there  are  not  two 
Angels  of  the  same  species,  but  that  each  of 
them  is  a  species  by  himself,  why  should  not 
certain  Angels  be  most  pure  spirits,  of  a  con- 
sequently very  superior  nature,  and  others 
corporeal,  therefore  of  a  less  perfect  na- 
ture, differing  thus  from  each  other  in  their 
corporeal  or  incorporeal  substance?  This 
doctrine  has  the  advantage  of  solving  the 
otherwise  insoluble  contradiction  between 
two  (Ecumenical  Councils,  namely  the 
Seventh  General  Synod  and  the  above- 
mentioned  Council  ofLateran.  For,  during 
the  fifth  sitting  of  that  Synod,  the  second 
of  Nicea,  a  book  was  introduced  written 
by  John  of  Thessalonica  against  a  pagan 
Philosopher,  wherein  occur  the  following 
propositions  :  «  Respecting  Angels,  Ar- 
changels and  their  Powers^  to  which  I 
adjoin  our  own  Souls,  the  Catholic  Church 
is  really  of  opinion  that  they  are  intelli- 
gences, hut  not  entirely  bodyless  and  sen- 
seless, as  you  Gentiles  aver;  she  on  the 
contrary  ascribes  to  them  a  subtile  body, 
aerial  or  igneous^  according  to  what  is 
written  :  He  makes  the  spirits  His  Angels, 
and  the  burning  fire  His  Minister  ».  And 
further  on  :  « Although  not  corporeal  in  the 


74  Dasmonialitas 

Angelos,  vel  Dasmones,  vel  Animas  dixerit 
incorporeas  :  multoties  enim  in  proprio 
corpore  visi  sunt  ab  illis,  quibus  Dominus 
oculos  aperuit.  Et  cum  omnia  lectafuis- 
sent  coram  Patribus  synodaliter  congre- 
gatis,  Tharasius,  Patriarcha  Constantino- 
politanus,  poposcit  adprobationem  Sanctce 
Synodi  his  verbis  :  Ostendit  Pater,  quod 
Angelos  pingi  oporteat,  quoniam  circum- 
scribi  possunt,  et  ut  homines  apparuerunt. 
Synodus  autem  uno  ore  respondit :  Etiam, 

38.  Hanc  autem  Conciliarem  adpfoba* 
tionem  de  materia  ad  longum  pertractata 
a  D.  Joanne  in  libro  coram  Patribus  lectot 
statuere  articulum  jidei  circa  corporei- 
«  tatem  Angelorum,  perspicuum  est :  unde 
ad  tollendam  contradictionem  hujus,  cum 
allata  definitione  Concilii  LateranensiSt 
multum  desudant  Theologi.  Unus  enim, 
Suare!{,  de  Angelis,  ait,  quod  Patres  non 
contradixerunt  tali  asserto  de  corporeitate 
Angelorum,  quia  non  de  ilia  re  agebatur. 
Alius,  Bann.,  in  p.  p.  q.  lo,  ait,  quod 
Synodus  adprobavit  conclusionem,  nempe 
Angelos  pingi  posse ^   non   tamen   adpro- 

Demoniality  y5 

same  way  as  ourselves,  made  of  the  four 
elements,  yet  it  is  impossible  to  say  that 
Angels,  Demons  and  Souls  are  incorporeal ; 
for  they  have  been  seen  many  a  time,  inves- 
ted with  their  own  body,  by  those  whose 
eyes  the  Lord  had  opened".  And  after  that 
book  had  been  read  through  before  all  the 
Fathers  in  Council  assembled,  Tharasius, 
the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople,  submitted 
it  to  the  approval  of  the  Council,  with 
these  words  :  «  The  Father  showeth  that 
Angels  should  be  pictured,  since  their  form 
can  be  defined,  and  they  have  been  seen  in 
the  shape  of  men  ».  Without  a  dissentient, 
the  Synod  answered  :  «  Yes,  my  Lord  it. 

38.  That  this  approbation  by  a  Council 
of  the  doctrine  set  forth  at  length  in  the 
book  of  John  establishes  an  article  of  belief 
with  regard  to  the  corporeity  of  Angels , 
there  is  not  a  shadow  of  doubt  :  so  Theo- 
logians toil  and  moil  in  order  to  remove 
the  contradiction  apparent  between  that 
decision  and  the  definition,  above  quoted  , 
by  the  Council  of  Lateran.  One  of  them, 
Suarez,  says  that  if  the  Fathers  did  not 
disprove  such  an  assertion  of  the  corpo- 
reity of  Angels,  it  is  because  that  was  not 
the  question.  Another  contends  that  the 
Synod  did  approve  the  conclusion,  namely 

•j^  Daemonialitas 

havit  rationem,  quia  corporei  sunt.  Alius, 
Molin.,  in  p,  p.,  q.  5o.  a,  i,  ait,  quod 
dejinitiones  Conciliares  in  ilia  Synodo 
factce  sunt  solum  actione  septima,  proinde 
ea  quce  habentur  in  actionibus  prc^ceden- 
tibus  non  esse  dejinitiones  de  fide.  Alii, 
Joverc.  et  Mirand.,  Sum.  Cone,  scribunt 
nee  Niccenum,  nee  Lateranense  Concilium 
intendisse  definere  de  fide  qucestionem;  et 
Niccenum  quidem  locutum  fuisse  juxta 
opinionem  Platonicorum,  quce  ponit  An- 
gelos  corporeos,  et  tunc  prcevalebat;  Late- 
ranense autem  loculum  esse  juxta  mentem 
Aristotelis,  qui,  I.  12.  Metaphys.,  tex. 
49,  ponit  intelligentias  incorporeas,  quce 
sententia  contra  Platonicos  apud  plerosque 
Doctores  invaluit  expost. 

39.  Sed  quam  frigidce  sint  istce  respon^ 
siones  nemo  non  videt^  ac  eas  minime  sa- 
tisfacere  oppositioni  palmar  iter  demonstrat 
Bonaventura  Baro^  Scot.  Defens.,  tom.  9, 
apolog.  2 ,  actio  i ,  §  2  per  totum. 
Proinde  ad  tollendam  contradictionem 
Conciliorum  dicendum  est,  Nicceum  lo- 
cutum esse  de  una,  Lateranense  autem  de 
alia  specie  Angelorum,  et  illam  quidem 
corpoream,  hanc  veropenitus  incorpoream; 

Demoniality  77 

that  Angels  might  be  pictured,  but  not  the 
motive  given,  their  corporeity.  A  third, 
Molina,  observes  that  the  definitions  is- 
sued in  Council  by  the  Synod  were  thus 
issued  only  at  the  seventh  sitting.,  whence 
he  argues  that  those  of  the  previous  sittings 
are  not  definitions  of  belief.  Others,  lastly, 
write  that  neither  the  Council  of  Nicea 
nor  that  of  Lateran  intended  defining  a 
question  of  belief,  the  Council  of  Nicea 
having  spoken  according  to  the  opinion  of 
the  Platonists,  which  describes  Angels  as 
corporeal  beings  and  was  then  prevailing, 
whilst  that  of  Lateran  went  with  Aristo- 
teles,  who,  in  his  12th.  book  of  Metaphy- 
sics, lays  down  the  existence  of  incorpo- 
real intelligences,  a  doctrine  which  has 
since  carried  the  day  with  most  Doctors 
over  the  Platonists. 

39.  But  any  one  can  discern  the  invali- 
dity of  those  answers,  and  Bonaventure 
Baro  [Scot.  Defens.,tomQ  9)  proves  to  evi- 
dence that  they  do  not  bear.  In  conse- 
quence, in  order  to  agree  the  two 
Councils,  we  must  say  that  the  Council  of 
Nicea  meant  one  species  of  Angels,  and 
that  of  Lateran  another :  the  former,  cor- 
poreal, the  latter  on  the  contrary  abso- 
lutely incorporeal;  and  thus  are   recon- 


78  Daemonialitas 

et  sic  conciliantur  alitcr  irreconciliabilia 

40.  Prcemittendum  iP,  nomen  Angeli 
esse  nomen  officii,  non  naturce,  ut  concor- 
diter  scribunt  S.  S.  Patres  :  Ambros.  in  c, 
I  epist.  ad  Hebr.,  Hilaris,  I.  5  de  Trin., 
Augustinus,  lib.  i5  de  Civit.  Dei  c.  23, 
Gregorius,  Horn.  84  in  Evang.,  Isidorus, 
I.  de  Sum.  Bonit.,  c.  12;  unde  prceclare 
ait  D.  Ambrosius  :  Angelus  non  ex  eo 
quod  est  spiritus,  ex  eo  quod  agit,  An- 
gelus, quia  Angelus  Greece,  Latine  Nun- 
tius  dicitur;  sequitur  igitur  ex  hoc,  quod 
illi,  qui  ad  aliquod  ministerium  a  Deo 
mittuntur,  sive  spiritus  sint,  sive  homines, 
Angeli  vocari  possunt;  et  de  facto  it  a 
vocantur  in  Scripturis  Sacris  :  nam  de 
Sacerdotibus ,  Concionatoribus  ac  Doc- 
toribus,  qui  tanquam  Nuntii  Dei  explicant 
hominibus  divinam  voluntatem ,  dicitur, 
Malach.  c.  2.  v.  7  :  Labia  Sacerdotis 
custodient  scientiam,  et  legem  requirent 
ex  ore  ejus,  quia  Angelus  Domini  exerci- 
tuum  est.  D.  Joannes  Baptista  ab  eodem 
Prophet  a,  c.  3  v.  i,  vocatur  Angelus, 
dum  ait  :  Ecce  ego  mitto  Angelum  meum, 
et  prceparabit  viam  ante  faciem  meam.  Et 
hanc  prophetiam  esse  ad  litteram  de 
S.  Joanne  Baptista  testatur  Christus  Do- 

Demoniality  79 

ciled  two  otherwise  irreconcilable  Coun- 

40.  Secondly,  I  premise  that  the  word 
Angel  applies,  not  indeed  to  the  kind,  but 
to  the  office  :  the  Holy  Fathers  are  agreed 
thereupon  (St.  Ambrose,  on  the  Epistle  to 
the  Hebrews;  St.  Austin,  City  of  God;  St. 
Gregory,  Homily  84  on  Scripture;  St.  Isi- 
dorus.  Supreme  Goodness).  An  Angel, 
very  truly  says  St.  Ambrose,  is  thus 
styled,  not  because  he  is  a  spirit,  but  on 
account  of  his  office  :  'AyyeXo?  in  Greek, 
Nuntius  in  Latin,  that  is  to  say  Messenger; 
it  follows  that  whoever  is  entrusted  by  God 
with  a  mission,  be  he  spirit  or  man,  may 
be  called  an  Angel,  and  is  thus  called  in 
the  Holy  Scriptures,  where  the  following 
words  are  applied  to  Priests, Preachers  and 
Doctors,  who,  as  Messengers  of  God,  ex- 
plain to  men  the  divine  will  (Malachi, 
chapt.  2,  V.  7). «  The  priest's  lips  should 
keep  knowledge,  and  they  should  seek  the 
law  at  his  mouth,  for  he  is  the  Angel  of  the 
Lord  of  Hosts.  »  The  same  prophet,  chapt. 
3,  V.  I,  bestows  the  name  of  Angel  on  St. 
John  the  Baptist,  when  saying  :  aBehold,! 
will  send  my  Angel  and  he  shall  prepare  the 
way  before  me.  »  That  this  prophecy  lite- 
rally  applies  to  St.   John  the   Baptist  is 

8o  Daemonialitas 

minus  in  Evangclio  Matthaei,  ii,  v.  lo. 
Immo  et  ipse  Deiis,  quia  fuit  missus  a 
Patre  in  mundum  ad  evangeli^andum 
legem  gratice^  vacatur  Angelus.  Ita  in 
prophetia  Isaice,  c.  9  v.  6,  juxta  ver- 
sionem  Septuaginta  :  Vocabitur  nomen 
ejus  magni  consilii  Angelus,  et  clarius  in 
Malachicp  c.  3  v.  i  :  Veniet  ad  templum 
sanctum  suum  Dominator  quern  vos  quae- 
ritis,  et  Angelus  testament!  quem  vos 
vultis.  Quce  prophetia  ad  litteram  est  de 
Christo  Domino.  Sequitur  igitur  nullum 
absurdum  sequi  ex  hoc,  quod  dicimus  An- 
gelas quosdam  esse  corporeos ,  nam  et 
homines,  qui  cor  pore  constant,  Angeli  vo- 
cabulo  efferuntur. 

41.  Prcemittendum  3°,  nondum  rerutn 
naturalium,  quce  sunt  in  mundo,  satis  per- 
spectam  esse  existentiam,  aut  naturam,  ut 
proinde  aliquid  negandum  sit  ex  eo,  quod 
de  illo  nunquam  alias  dictum,  aut  scriptum 
fuerit.  Patet  enim  tractu  temporis  de- 
tectas  esse  novas  terras,  quas  Antiqui 
nostri  ignorarunt,  novaque  animalia,  her- 
bas,  plantas,  fructus,  semina  nunquam 
alias  visa;  et  si  pervia  esset  Terra  Austra- 
lis  incognita^  cujus  indagatio,  et  lustratio 

Demonialitjr  8 1 

testified  by  our  Lord  Jesus-Christ,  in  the 
Gospel,  accordingto  St.  Matthew,  chapt.  1 1, 
V.  10.  Still  more  :  God  himself  is  called  an 
Angel,  because  he  has 'been  sent  by  His 
Father  to  herald  the  law  of  mercy.  To 
witness,  the  prophecy  of  Isaiah,  chapt.  9, 
V.  6,  according  to  Septuagint :  a  He  shall 
be  called  an  Angel  of  Wonderful  Counsel.  » 
And  more  plainly  still  in  Malachi,  chapt.  3, 
V.  I  :  «  The  Lord  whom  ye  seek  shall 
suddenly  come  to  his  temple.,  even  the  An- 
gel of  the  covenant  whom  ye  delight  in  », 
a  prophecy  which  literally  applies  to  our 
Lord  Jesus-Christ.  There  is  consequent- 
ly nothing  absurd  in  the  contention  that 
some  Angels  are  corporeal,  since  men, 
who  assuredly  have  a  body,  are  called 

41.  Thirdly,  I  premise  that  neither  the 
existence  nor  the  nature  of  the  natural 
things  in  this  world  has  been  sufficiently 
investigated  to  allow  of  denying  a  fact,  me- 
rely because  it  has  never  been  previously 
spoken  of  or  written  about.  In  the  course  of 
time  have  not  new  lands  been  discovered 
which  the  Ancients  knew  not  of?  New  ani- 
mals, herbs,  plants,  fruits  and  seeds,  never 
seen  elsewhere?  And  if  that  mysterious 
Austral  land  came  at  last  to  be  explored, 

82  Daemonialitas 

a  multis  hucusque  incassum  tentata  est^ 
adhuc  nova  nobis  alia  panderentur.  Patet 
adhuc,  quod  per  inventionem  microscopii, 
et  alias  machinas,  et  organa  Philosophice 
experimentalis  modern(^,  sicut  etiam  per 
exactiorem  indaginem  Anatomistarum, 
multarum  rerum  naturalium  existentiam, 
vires,  naturamque  turn  innotuisse,  turn 
dietim  innotescere,  quce  prcecedentes  Phi- 
losophi  ignorarunt,  ut  patet  in  auro  ful- 
minante,  phosphoro,  et  centum  aliis  chy- 
micis  experimentis^  circulatione  sanguinis^ 
venis  lacteis,  vasis  lymphaticis,  et  aliis 
hujusmodi  qua'  nuper  Anatomistce  adinve- 
nerunt.  Proinde  ineptum  erit  aliquod  exsi- 
billare  ex  hoc  quod  de  eo  nullus  Antiquo- 
rum  scripserit,  attento  maxime  Logicorum 
axiomate,  quod  locus  ah  auctoritate  ne- 
gativa  non  tenet. 

42.  Prcemittendum  4»,  quod  in  Sacra 
Scriptura,  et  Ecclesiasticis  traditionibus 
non  traditur  nisi  id,  quod  ad  animce  salu' 
tern  necessarium  est,  quoad  credendum, 
sperandum  et  amandum;  unde  inferre  non 
licet  ex  eo,  quod  nee  ex  Scriptura,  nee  ex 
traditione  aliquod  habetur,  proinde  negan- 


Demoniality  83 

as  has  been  to  this  day  vainly  tried  by  so 
many  travellers,  what  unforeseen  disclo- 
sures would  be  the  result !  Through  the 
invention  of  the  microscope  and  other 
instruments  used  by  modern  experimental 
Philosophy,  combined  with  the  more  exact 
methods  of  investigation  of  Anatomists, 
have  there  not  been,  and  are  there  not, 
every  day,  brought  to  light  the  existence, 
qualities  and  characteristics  of  a  number 
of  natural  things  unknown  to  ancient 
Philosophers,  such  as  fulminating  gold, 
phosphorus,  and  a  hundred  other  che- 
mical compounds,  the  circulation  of  the 
blood,  the  lacteal  vessels,  the  lymph- 
ducts  and  other  recent  anatomical  dis- 
coveries? To  deride  a  doctrind  because  it 
does  not  happen  to  be  mentioned  in  any 
ancient  author  would  therefore  be  absurd, 
especially  bearing  in  mind  this  axiom  of 
Logic  :  locus  ab  auctoritate  negativa  non 

42*  Fourthly,  I  premise  that  Holy  Scrip-' 
ture  and  ecclesiastical  tradition  do  not 
teach  us  any  thing  beyond  what  is  requi- 
site for  the  salvation  of  the  soul,  namely 
Faith,  Hope  and  Charity.  Consequently^ 
from  a  thing  not  being  stated  either  by 
Scripture  or  tradition   it  must  not  be  in- 

84  Dasmonialitas 

dum  sitf  quod  illud  tale  existat  :  aut  nos 
quidem  Fides  docet,  Devm  per  Verbum 
siium  omnia  creasse  visibilia,  et  invisi- 
bilia;  pariterque  ex  Jesu  Christi  Domini 
nostri  meritis  tum  gratiam,  turn  gloriam 
omni,  et  cuivis  rationali  creature^  conferri. 
Num  autem  alius  Mundus  a  nostra,  quern 
incolimus,  sit,  et  in  eo  alii  homines  non  ab 
Adam  prognati,  sed  alio  modo  a  Deo  creati 
existant  [sicut  ponunt  illi  qui  lunarem 
globum  habitatum  opinantur);  pariterque 
num  in  hoc  Mundo^  quem  incolimus,  alice 
existant  creaturce  rationales  ultra  homines^ 
et  Spiritus  Angelicas ,  quce  regulariter 
hominibus  sint  invisibiles,  et  per  accidens^ 
et  earum  executiva  potentia  Jiant  visibiles  : 
hoc  nullo  modo  speclat  ad  jidem,  et  hoc 
scire,  aut  ignorare  non  est  ad  salutem  ho- 
minis  necessarium,  sicut  nee  scire  rerum 
omnium  physicarum  numerum  aut  natu- 

43.  Pr^mittendum  5",  nultam  inveniri 
repugnantiam,  nee  in  Philosophia,  nee  in 
Theologia;  quod  dari  possint  creaturce  ra- 
tionales constantes  spiritu  et  corpore,  alice 
ab  homine,  quia  si  esset  repugnantia,  hoc 
esset  vel  ex  parte  Dei  [et  hoc  non  quia  ipse 
omnipotens  est),  vel  ex  parte  rei  creabilis; 

Demonialitjr  85 

ferred  that  that  thing  is  not  in  existence. 
For  instance,  Faith  teaches  us  that  God, 
by  His  Word,  made  things  visible,  and 
invisible,  and  also  that,  through  the  me- 
rits of  our  Lord  Jesus-Christ,  grace  and 
glory  are  conferred  on  every  rational  crea- 
ture. Now,  that  there  be  another  World 
than  the  one  we  live  in,  and  that  it  be 
peopled  by  men  not  born  of  Adam  but 
made  by  God,  in  some  other  way,  as  is 
implied  by  those  who  believe  the  lunar 
globe  to  be  inhabited;  or  further,  that  in 
the  very  World  we  dwell  in,  there  be  other 
rational  creatures  besides  man  and  the 
Angelic  Spirits,  creatures  generally  invisi- 
ble to  us  and  whose  being  is  disclosed  but 
accidentally,  through  the  instrumentality 
of  their  own  power;  all  that  has  nothing 
to  do  with  Faith,  and  the  knowledge  or 
ignorance  thereof  is  no  more  necessary  to 
the  salvation  of  man  than  knowing  the 
number  or  nature  of  all  physical  things. 

43.  Fifthly,  I  premise  that  neither  Phi- 
losophy nor  Theology  is  repugnant  to  the 
possible  existence  of  rational  creatures 
having  spirit  and  body  and  distinct  from 
man.  Such  repugnance  could  be  supported 
only  on  God,  and  that  is  inadmissible, 
since  he  is  all-mighty,  or  on  the  thing  to 


86  Daemonialitas 

et  neque  hoc,  quia  sicut  creatura  mere  spi- 
ritualis ,  ut  Angeli,  creata  est,  et  mere 
materialise  ut  Mundus,  et  partim  spiritua- 
lis,  partim  corporea,  corporeitate  terrestri, 
et  crassay  ut  homo,  ita  creabilis  est  creatura 
constans  spiritu  rationali,  et  corporeitate 
minus  crassa,  sed  subtiliore,  quam  sit  homo, 
Et  profecto  post  Resurrectionem  anima 
Beatorum  erit  unita  corpori  glorioso  dote 
subtilitatis  donato  :  ut  proinde  concludi 
posset,  potuisse  Deum  creare  creaturam 
rationalem  corpoream,  cui  naturaliter  in- 
dita  sit  corporis  subtilitas,  sicut  per  gra- 
tiam  corpori  glorioso  confertur. 

44.  Astruitur  aiitem  magis  talium  creatu- 
rarum  possibilitas  ex  solutione  argumento- 
rum ,  quce  contra  positam  conclusionem 
fieri  possunt,  pariterque  ex  responsione  ad 

interrogationes,   quce    possunt   circa  eam 

45.  Prima  interrogatio  est,  an  tales 
creatures  dicendce  essent  animalia  rationa- 
lia?  Quod  si  siCy  quomodo  different  ab 
homine,  cum  quo  communem  haberent  de- 

Demoniality  87 

be  made,  and  that  likewise  cannot  be  sup- 
ported; for,  as  there  are  purely  spiritual 
creatures,  such  as  Angels,  or  merely  ma- 
terial, such  as  the  World,  or  lastly  semi- 
spiritual  and  semi-corporeal,  of  an  earthly 
and  gross  corporeity,  such  as  man,  so 
there  may  well  be  in  existence  a  creature 
endowed  with  a  rational  spirit  and  a  cor- 
poreity less  gross,  more  subtile  than  man's. 
No  doubt,  moreover,  but  that  after  Resur- 
rection, the  souls  of  the  blessed  will  be 
united  with  a  glorious  and  subtile  body; 
from  which  may  be  inferred  that  God  may 
well  have  made  a  rational  and  corporeal 
creature  whose  body  naturally  enjoys  the 
subtilty  which  will  be  conferred  by  the 
grace  on  the  glorious  body. 

44.  But,  the  possible  existence  of  such 
creatures  will  be  still  better  set  forth  by 
solving  the  arguments  which  can  be  ad- 
duced against  our  conclusion,  and  replying 
to  the  questions  it  may  raise. 

45.  First  question  :  should  such  creatu- 
res be  styled  rational  animals  ?  And  if  so, 
in  what  do  they  differ  from  man,  with 
whom  they  would  have  that  definition  in 

88  Daemonialitas 

46.  Respondeo  quod  essent  animalia  ra- 
tionalia  sensibus  et  organis  corporis  prce- 
dita^  sicut  homo  :  differrent  aiitem  ab  ho- 
mine  non  solum  ratione  corporis  tenuioris^ 
sed  etiam  materiel.  Homo  siquidem  ex 
crassiore  elementorum  omnium  parte,  puta 
ex  luto,  nempe  aqua  et  terra  crassafor- 
matus  est^  iit  constat  ex  Scriptura,  Gen.  2. 
v.7-;ista  vero  format  a  essent  ex  subti- 
liore parte  omnium,  aut  unius,  seu  alterius 
elementorum;  ut  proinde  alia  essent  terrea, 
alia  aquea,  alia  aerea,  et  alia  ignea;  et  ut 
eorum  definitio  cum  hominis  definitione 
non  conveniret,  addendum  esset  dejinitioni 
hominis  crassa  materialitas  sui  corporis, 
per  quam  a  dictis  animalibus  differret. 

47.  Secunda  interrogatio  est,  quando- 
nam  hujus  modi  animalia  fuissent  con- 
dita,  et  num  cum  brutis  producta  a  terra, 
aut  ab  aqua,  ut  quadrupedia,  et  aves  re- 
spective; an  vero  a  Domino  Deoformata, 
ut  fuit  homo  ? 

48.  Respondeo  quod  de  fide  est,  quod 
•posito^  quod  existant  de  facto^  creata  sint 
a  principio  Mundi :  sic  enim   definitur  a 

Demoniality  89 

46.  I  reply  :  Yes,  they  would  be  rational 
animals,  provided  with  senses  and  organs 
even  as  man;  they  would,  however,  differ 
from  man  not  only  in  the  more  subtile  na- 
ture, but  also  in  the  matter  of  their  body. 
In  fact,  as  is  shown  by  Scripture,  man  has 
been  made  from  the  grossest  of  all  ele- 
ments, namely  clay,  a  gross  mixtOre  of 
water  and  earth :  but  those  creatures  would 
be  made  from  the  most  subtile  part  of  all 
elements,  or  of  one  or  other  of  them ;  thus, 
some  would  proceed  from  earth ,  others 
from  water,  or  air,  or  fire;  and,  in  order 
that  they  should  not  be  defined  in  the 
same  terms  as  man,  to  the  definition  of 
the  latter  should  be  added  the  mention  of 
the  gross  materiality  of  his  body,  wherein 
he  would  differ  from  said  animals. 

47.  Second  question  :  At"  what  period 
would  those  animals  have  been  originated, 
and  wherefrom?  From  earth,  like  the 
beasts,  or  from  water,  like  quadrupeds, 
birds,  etc.  ?  Or,  on  the  contrary,  would  they 
have  been  made,  like  man,  by  our  Lord 

48.  I  reply  :  It  is  an  article  of  belief,  ex- 
pressly laid  down  by  the  Council  of  La- 
teran,   that  whatever   is    in  fact    and   at 


90  Daemonialitas 

Concilio  Lateranensi  [Firm,  de  sum.  Tri- 
nit.  etfide  cathoL);  nempe  quod  Deus  sua 
omnipotenti  virtute  simid  ab  initio  tempo- 
ris  utramque  de  nihilo  condidit  creaturam, 
spiritualem  et  corporalem.  Sub  ilia  etenim 
Creaturarum  generalitate  etiam  ilia  anima- 
lia  essent  comprehensa.  Quo  vero  ad  eo- 
rum  formationem,  decuisse  ipsorum  cor- 
pus a  Deo  ministerio  Angelorum  formatum 
fiiisse,  sicut  a  Deo  formatum  legimus  cor- 
pus hominis,  quia  ipsi  copulandus  erat  spi' 
ritus  immortalis ,  quandoquidem  spiritus 
incorporeus  et  proinde  nobilissimus  cor- 
pori  pariter  originaliter  nobiliori  cceteris 
brutis  jungendus  erat. 

49.  Tertia  interrogatio,  an  talia  anima- 
lia  habuissent  originem  ab  uno  solo,  velut 
omnes  homines  ab  Adam,  an  vero  plura  si- 
mul  formatd  essent  sicut  fuit  de  cceteris 
animantibus  a  terra  et  aqua  productis,  in 
quibus  fuerunt  mares  et  foemince  quce  spe- 
ciem  per  generationem  conservant?  Et  si 
hoc  oporteret  inter  talia  ajiimalia  esse  dis- 
tinctionem  sexus;  ipsa  nasci,  et  interire; 
passionibus  sensus  afjici^  nutriri^  crescere ; 
et  tunc  quo  alimento  vescerentur,esset  quce- 
rendum;  prceterea  an  vitam  socialem  du- 
cerent,  ut  homines  ,■  qua  politica  regeren^ 
tur;  num  urbes  ad  habitandum  struxissent; 

Demoniality  9 1 

present,  was  made  in  the  origin  of  the 
world.  By  His  all-mighty  virtue,  God, 
from  the  beginning  of  time,  raised  together 
from  nothing  both  orders  of  creatures, 
spiritual  and  corporeal.  Now,  those  ani- 
mals also  would  be  included  in  the  gene- 
rality of  creatures.  As  to  their  formation, 
it  might  be  said  that  God  Himself,  through 
the  medium  of  Angels,  made  their  body 
as  he  did  man's,  to  which  an  immortal 
spirit  was  to  be  united.  That  body  being 
of  a  nobler  nature  than  that  of  other  ani- 
mals, it  was  meet  that  it  should  be  united 
to  an  incorporeal  and  highly  noble  spirit. 

49.  Third  question  :  Would  those  ani- 
mals descend  from  one  individual,  as  all 
men  descend  from  Adam,  or,  on  the  con- 
trary, would  many  have  been  made  at  the 
same  time,  as  was  the  case  for  the  other 
living  things  issued  from  earth  and  water, 
wherein  were  males  and  females  for  the 
preservation  of  the  kind  by  generation  ? 
Would  there  be  amongst  them  a  distinc- 
tion between  the  sexes?  Would  they  be 
subject  to  birth  and  death,  to  senses,  pas- 
sions, want  of  food,  power  of  growth?  If 
so,  what  their  nutrition?  Would  they 
lead  a  social  life,  as  men  do  ?  By  what  laws 

92  Daemonialitas 

num  artes,   studia,  possessiones,   et  bella 
inter  ea  essent,  sicut   est  in  hominibus. 

5o.  Respondeo  :  potuit  esse  quod  omnia 
ab  uno,  velut  homines  ab  Adam,  sint  pro- 
genita,'  potuit  pariter  esse,  quod  ex  iis 
multi  mares,  et  plures  foeminc^  fuissent 
formatce,  a  quibus  per  generationem  eorum 
species  essent  propagates.  Ultro  admitte- 
remus  talia  animalia  oriri  et  mori ;  mares 
alios,  alias  fosminas  inter  ea  esse ;  passio- 
nibus,  sensibus  agitari  velut  homines ;  nu- 
triri  et  crescere  secimdum  molem  sui  cor- 
poris; cibum  autem  ipsorum  non  crassum 
qualem  requirit  crassities  corporis  humani, 
sed  substanfiam  teniiem  et  vapor osam 
emanantem  per  effluvia  spirituosa  a  rebus 
physicis  pollentibus  corpusculis  maxime 
volatilibus,  ut  nidor  carnium  maxime  as- 
satarum,  vapor  vini,  fructuum,  florum, 
aromatum,  a  quibus  copiosa  hujusmodi  ef- 
fluvia usque  ad  totalem  partium  subtiliorum 
ac  volatilium  evaporationem  scaturiunt. 
Talia  autem  animalia  civilem  vitam  du- 
cere  posse,  et  inter  ea  distinctos  esse  gra- 
dus  dominantium  ac  servientium  pro  con- 
ditione  naturce  ipsorum,  artesque,  scientias^ 
ministeria,  exercitia,  loca^   mansiones,  ac 

Demoniality  93 

ruled?  Would  they  build  up  cities  for  their 
dwellings,  cultivate  the  arts  and  sciences, 
hold  property,  and  wage  war  between 
themselves,  as  men  are  wont  to  ? 

5o.  I  reply  :  It  may  be  that  all  descend 
from  one  individual,  as  men  descend  from 
Adam;  it  may  be  also  that  a  number  of 
males  and  females  were  made  initially, 
who  preserved  their  kind  by  generation. ' 
We  will  further  admit  that  they  are  born 
and  die;. that  they  are  divided  into  males 
and  females,  and  are  moved  by  senses  and 
passions,  as  men  are;  that  they  feed  and 
grow  according  to  the  size  of  their  body; 
their  food,  however,  instead  of  being  gross 
like  that  required  by  the  human  body, 
must  be  delicate  and  vapoury,  emanating 
through  spirituous  effluvia  from  whatever 
in  the  physical  world  abounds  with  highly 
volatile  corpuscles,  such  as  the  flavour  of 
meats ,  especially  of  roasts ,  the  fume  of 
wine ,  the  fragrancy  of  fruit,  flowers,  aro- 
matics,  which  evolve  an  abundance  of 
those  effluvia  until  all  their  subtile  and 
volatile  parts  have  completely  evaporated. 
To  their  being  able  to  lead  a  social  life, 
with  distinctions  of  rank  and  precedence ; 
to  their  cultivating  the  arts  and  sciences, 
exercising  functions,  maintaining  armies, 

94  Daemonialitas 

alia  necessaria  ad  eorum  conservationem, 
nullam  penilus  importat  repugnantiam. 

5i.  Quarta  interrogatio  est,  qualis  esset 
eorum  corporis  figuratio,  an  humanam,  an 
aliam  formam,  et  qualem  haberent,  et  an 
partes  corporis  ipsorum  haberent  ordinem 
essentialem  inter  se,  ut  corpora  ca^terorum 
animalium,  an  vero  accidentalem  tantum, 
ut  corpora  Jluidarum  substantiarum,  ut 
oleiy  aquce,  nubis,  fiimi,  etc.;  et  num.  sub- 
stantive suarum  partium  organicarum  di- 
ver simode  constarent,  ut  organa  hominum, 
in  quibus  sunt  alice  partes  crassissimce,  ut 
ossa,  alia^  minus  crassce,  ut  cartilagines, 
alice  tenues,  ut  membrance. 

52,  Respondeo,  quod  quantum  ad  figu- 
ram  corpoream  nihil  certi  affirmare  de- 
bemus,  aut  possumus,  cum  talis  figura  non 
sit  exacte  nobis  sensibilis,  nee  quoad  vi- 
sum, nee  quoad  tactum,  prce  sui  corpo- 
ris  tenuitate,  ac  perspicacitate ;  qualis 
proinde  vere  sit,  noverent  ipsi,  aliique,  qui 
substantias  immateriales  intuitive  cogno- 
scere  possunt.  Quoad  congruentiam  et  pro- 
babilitatem  dico,  ilia  referre  speciem  cor- 
poris humani,  cum  aliquo  distinctivo  a  cor- 
pore  humanoj  nisi  forte  ad  hoc  sufficiat  sua 

Demonialitjr  95 

building  up  cities,  doing  in  short  whatever 
is  requisite  for  their  preservation,  I  have 
in  the  main  no  objection. 

5 1 .  Fourth  question :  What  would  their 
figure  be,  human  or  otherwise?  Would  the 
ordering  of  the  divers  parts  of  their  body- 
be  essential ,  as  with  other  animals ,  or 
merely  accidental,  as  with  fluid  substances, 
such  as  oil,  water,  clouds,  smoke,  etc.? 
Would  those  organic  parts  consist  of  va- 
rious substances,  as  is  the  case  with  the 
organs  of  the  human  body,  wherein  are  to 
be  found  very  gross  parts,  such  as  the  bo- 
nes, others  less  gross,  such  as  the  cartila- 
ges, and  others  slender,  such  as  the  mem- 

52.  I  reply  :  As  regards  their  figure,  we 
neither  can  nor  should  be  affirmative,  since 
it  escapes  our  senses,  being  too  delicate 
for  our  sight  or  our  touch.  That  we  must 
leave  to  themselves,  and  to  such  as  have 
the  privilege  of  intuitive  acquaintance  with 
immaterial  substances.  But,  so  far  as  pro- 
bability goes,  I  say  that  their  figure  tallies 
with  the  human  body,  save  some  distinctive 
peculiarity,  should  the  very  tenuity  of 
their  body  not  be  deemed  sufficient.  I  am 
led  to  that  by  the  consideration  that  of  all 

96  Daemonialitas 

ipsorum  tenuitas.  Ducor,  quia  corpus  hu- 
mamim  plasmatum  a  Deo  perfectissimum 
est,  inter  animalia  quceque,  et  cum  ccetera 
bruta  in  terram  sint  prona,  eo  quia  anima 
eorum  mortalis  est,  Deus,  ut  ait  pacta  Ovid., 
Metamorphos. : 

Os  homini  sublime  dedit,  coelumque  tueri 
Jussit,  et  erectos  ad  sidera  tollere  vullus; 

quia  anima  hominis  immortalis  ordinataest 
ad  easiest  em  mansionem.  Cum  igitur  ani- 
malia, de  quibus  loquimur,  spiritum  habe- 
rent  immaterialem,  rationalem,  ac  immor- 
talem,  et  proinde  capacem  beatitudinis  ac 
damnationis,  congruum  est,  quod  corpus, 
cui  talis  spiritus  copulatur,  simile  sit  om- 
nium animdlium  nobilissimo,  corpori  hu- 
mano.  Ex  hac positione  sequitur,^quod  ejus 
corporis  partes  ordinem  inter  se  essentia- 
lem  habere  deberent;  nee  enim  pes  capiti, 
ant  ventri  manus  conjungi  deberet  :  sed 
congrua  membrorum  essentiali  dispositions 
ordinata,  ut  essent  idonea  ministeriis  pro- 
priis  perficiendis.  Quo  autem  ad  partes  com- 
ponentes  ipsarum  organa,  dico  quod  neces- 
sarium  esset,  ut  nonnullce  ipsarum  essent 
solidiores,  alice  minus  solida^,  alice  tenues, 
alice  tenuissimce  pro  necessitate  operationis 
organica;.  Nee  contra  hanc  pasitionem  fa- 

Demoniality  97 

the  works  of  God  the  human  frame  is  the 
most  perfect,  and  that  whilst  all  other  ani- 
mals stoop  to  the  ground,  because  their 
soul  is  mortal,  God,  as  Ovid,  the  poet, 
says,  in  his  Metamorphoses^ 

Gave  man  an   erect  figure,  bidding  him  behold 

[the  heavens 
And  raise  his  face  towards  the  stars, 

man's  soul  having  been  made  immortal  for 
the  heavenly  abode.  Considering  that  the 
animals  we  are  speaking  of  Would  be  gifted 
with  a  spirit  immaterial,  rational  and  im- 
mortal, capable  therefore  of  beatitude  and 
damnation,  it  is  proper  to  admit  that  the 
body  to  which  that  spirit  is  united  may  be 
like  unto  the  most  noble  animal  frame, 
that  is  to  say  to  the  human  frame.  Whence 
it  follows  that  in  the  divers  parts  of  that 
body  there  must  be  an  essential  order  ; 
that  the  foot,  for  instance,  cannot  be  an 
appendage  to  the  head,  nor  the  hand  to 
the  belly,  but  that  each  organ  is  in  its 
right  place,  according  to  the  functions  it 
has  to  perform.  As  to  the  constitutive  parts 
of  those  organs,  it  is,  in  my  opinion,  ne- 
cessary that  there  should  be  some  more  or 
less  strong,  others  more  or  less  slender, 
in  order  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the 
organic  working.   Nor  can  this   be  fairly 

98  Daemonialitas 

cile  potest  asseri  tenuitas  ipsorum  corpo- 
rum:  quippe  soliditas  aut  crassities  organi- 
carum  partium,  de  qua  dicimiis,  non  esset 
talis  simpliciter,  sed  comparative  ad  alias 
partes  tenuiores.  Et  hoc  patere  potest  in 
omnibus  corporibus  fluidis  naturalibus ,  ut 
vino,  oleo,  lacte,  etc.;  quantumvis  enim  om- 
nes  partes  in  ipsis  videantur  homogenece 
ac  similar es,  non  tamen  ita  est :  nam  in 
ipsis  est  pars  terrea,  pars  aquea,  salfixum, 
sal  volatile,  et  pars  sulfurea,  quce  omnia 
manipulatione  spargirica  oculis  subjici  pos- 
sUnt.  Ita  esset  in  casu  nostro  :  posito  enim 
quod  talium  animalium  corpora  subtilia 
et  teniiia,  ut  corpora  naturalia  fluida,  ve- 
lut  aqua  et  aer,  essent,  non  tamen  tollere- 
tur,  quin  in  ipsorum  partibus  diver  see  inter 
se  essent  qualitates,  et  aliquce  ipsarum 
comparative  ad  alias  essent  solida^,  et  alice 
tenuiores,  quamvis  totum  corpus  ex  ipsis 
compositum  tenue  did  posset. 

53.  Quod  si  dicatur,  quod  hcec  repugnant 
positioni  supra  firmatce,  circa  partium  es- 
sentialem  ordinationem  inter  se  :  quan- 
doquidem  videmus,  quod  in  corporibus  flui- 
dis  ac  tenuibus  una  pars  non  servat  ordi- 
nem  essentialem  ad  aliam,  sed  accidenta- 
lem   tantumj   ita  ut  hcec  pars  vini,  quce 

Demoniality  99 

objected  to  on  the  ground  of  the  slenderness 
of  the  bodies  themselves ;  for  the  strength 
or  thickness  of  the  organic  parts  alluded 
to  would  not  be  absolute,  but  merely  in 
comparison  with  the  more  slender  ones. 
That,  moreover,  may  be  observed  in  all 
natural  fluids,  such  as  wine,  oil,  milk,  etc.; 
however  homogeneous  and  similar  to  each 
other  their  component  parts  may  look,  yet 
they  are  not  so  :  for  some  are  clayish,  others 
aqueous ;  there  are  fixed  salts,  volatile 
salts,  brimstone,  all  of  which  are  made 
obvious  by  a  chemical  analysis.  So  it 
would  be  in  our  case  :  for,  supposing  the 
bodies  of  those  animals  to  be  as  subtile 
and  slender  as  the  natural  fluids,  air,  water, 
etc.,  there  would  nevertheless  be  discrepan- 
cies in  the  quality  of  their  constitutive 
parts,  some  of  which  would  be  strong  when 
compared  with  others  more  slender,  al- 
though the  whole  body  which  they  com- 
pose might  be  called  slender. 

53.  It  may  be  objected  that  this  is  repu- 
gnant to  what  was  said  above  concerning 
the  essential  ordering  of  the  parts  among 
themselves ;  that  it  is  seen  that,  in  fluid 
and  subtile  bodies,  one  part  is  not  essen- 
tially but  only  accidentally  connected  with 
another ;  that  a  part  of  wine,  for  instance. 

lOO  Daemonialitas 

modo  alteri  parti  contigua  est,  mox  in- 
verso  vase,  aut  moto  vino,  alteri  parti 
unitur,  et  sic  omnes  partes  diversam  posi- 
tionem  habent  quantumvis  semper  idem  vi- 
num  sit,  et  ex  hoc  sequeretur,  quod  talium 
animalium  corpora  figurata  stabiliter  non 
essent,  et  consequenter,  nee  organica. 

54.  Respondeo  negando  assumptum ;  et- 
enim  in  corporibus  fluidis,  quamvis  non  ap- 
pareat,  manet  tamen  essent ialis  partium 
ordinatio,  qua  stante  stat  in  suo  esse  com- 
positum,  et  hoc  patet  manifeste  in  vino  : 
expressum  enim  ab  uvis  videtur  liquor  to- 
taliter  homogeneus,  non  tamen  ita  est,-  in 
eo  enim  sunt  partes  crassce,  quce  tractu 
temporis  subsident  in  doliis  :  sunt  etiam 
partes  tenues,  quce  evaporant :  sunt  partes 
jixce,  ut  tartarus,  sunt  partes  volatiles,  ut 
sulphur,  sive  spiritus  ardens ;  sunt  partes 
medice  inter  volatile  ac  fixum,  ut  phlegma. 
Partes  istce  ordinem  essentialem  inter  se 
mutant;  nam  statim  ac  expressum  est  ab 
uvis,  et  mustum  dicitur  sulphur,  sive  spi- 
ritus volatilis,  ita  implicatum  manet  par- 
ticulis  tartari,  quijixus  est,  ut  nullo  modo 
avolare  valeat. 

Demonidlity     '  loi 

just  now  contiguous  with  some  other,  soon 
comes  in  contact  with  a  third,  if  the  vessel 
be  turned  upside  down  or  the  wine  shaken, 
and  that  all  the  parts  together  exchange 
positions  at  the  same  time,  though  it  be 
still  the  same  wine.  Whence  it  should  be 
inferred  that,  the  bodies  of  those  animals 
would  have  no  permanent  figure,  and 
would  consequently  not  be  organic. 

54.  I  reply  that  I  deny  the  assumption.  In 
fact,  if  in  fluid  bodies  the  essential  order- 
ing of  the  parts  is  not  apparent,  it  subsists 
none  the  less,  and  causes  a  compound  to 
preserve  its  own  state.  Wine,  for  instance, 
when  expressed  from  the  grapes,  seems  a 
thoroughly  homogeneous  liquor,  and  yet 
is  not  so  ;  for  there  are  gross  parts  which, 
in  the  long  run,  subside  in  the  casks  ;  there 
are  also  slender  parts  which  evaporate ; 
fixed  parts,  such  as  tartar  ;  volatile  parts, 
such  as  brimstone  and  alcohol ;  others 
again,  half  volatile  and  half  fixed,  such  as 
phlegm.  Those  divers  parts  do  not  respec- 
tively maintain  an  essential  order ;  for  no 
sooner  has  the  must  been  expressed  from 
the  grapes,  and  been  styled  brimstone  or  vo 
latile  spirits,  than  it  continues  so  closely  in- 
volved with  the  particles  of  tartar,  which  is 
fixed,  as  not  to  be  in  any  way  able  to  escape. 

102     '  Dafertionialitas 

55.  Hinc  est,  quod  a  musto  recenter  ab 
uvis  expresso  nullo  modo  potest  distillari 
spiritus  sulphureus,  qui  communiter  voca- 
tur  aqua  vitee  :  sed  post  quadraginta  dies 
fermentation  is  par  ticulce  vini  ordinem  mu- 
tant, ita  ut  spiritus,  qui  alligati  erant  par^ 
ticulis  tartareis,  et  propria  volatilitate  eas 
suspensas  tenebant,  et  vicissim  ab  eis  ne 
possent  avolare  detinebantur ,  ac  tartareis 
particulis  separantur,  et  divulsi  ac  confusi 
remanent  cum  partibus  phlegmaticis ,  a 
quibus  per  actionem  ignis  faciliter  sepa- 
rantur^ et  avolant;  sicque  per  distillatio- 
nem  jit  aqua  vitce,  quce  aliud  non  est  quam 
sulphur  vini  volatile  cum  tenuiore  parte 
phlegmatis  simul  cum  dicto  sulphur e  vi 
ignis  elevata.  Post  quadraginta  dies,  alia 
incipit  vinifermentatio,  quce  longiori,  aut 
minus  longo  tempore  perficitur,  pro  vini 
perfectiori  aut  imperfectiori  maturitate, 
et  alio  atque  alio  modo  terminatur ,  pro 
minore  aut  majore  spiritus  sulphurei  abun- 
dantia.  Si  enim  abundat  in  vino  sulphur, 
acescit  fermentatione,  et  evadit  acetum;  si 
autem  parum  sulphuris  continet,  lentescit 
vinum ,  et  Italice  dicitur  vino  moUe,  aut 
vino  guasto.  Quod  si  vinum  maturum  sit, 
ut  cceteris  paribus  est,  vinum  diilce  breviori 
tempore,  aut  acescit,  aut  lentescit,  ut  quo- 
tidiana  constat  experientia.  In  dicta  autem 

Demoniality  io3 

55.  That  is  the  reason  why  must  re- 
cently expressed  from  the  grapes  is  of 
no  use  for  the  distillation  of  the  sulfu- 
rous  spirits,  commonly  called  brandy  ; 
but,  after  forty  days  fermentation,  the  par- 
ticles of  the  wine  change  places  :  the  spirits, 
no  longer  bound  with  the  tartaric  particles 
which  they  kept  in  suspension  through 
their  own  volatility,  whilst  they  were,  in 
return,  kept  down  by  them  and  prevented 
from  escaping,  sever  from  those  particles, 
and  continue  confused  with  the  phlegmatic 
parts  from  which  they  become  easily  re- 
leased by  the  operation  of  fire,  and  evapo- 
rate :  thus,  by  means  of  distillation,  brandy 
is  made,  which  is  nothing  but  the  brimstone 
of  wine  volatilized  by  heat  with  the  most 
slender  part  of  phlegm.  At  the  end  of  forty 
days  another  fermentation  begins,  which 
extends  more  or  less,  according  as  the  ma- 
turity of  the  wine  is  more  or  less  perfect, 
and  the  termination  of  which  is  dependent 
on  the  greater  or  lesser  abundance  of  sul- 
phurous spirits.  If  abounding  with  brim- 
stone, the  wine  sours  and  turns  to  vinegar; 
if,  on  the  contrary,  it  holds  but  little 
brimstone,  it  ropes,  and  becomes  what  the 
Italians  call  vino  molle  or  vino  guasto.  If 
the  wine  is  at  once  ripe,  as  happens  in 
other  cases,  it  sours  or  ropes  in  less  time, 

104  Daemonialitas 

fermentatione  ordo  essentialis  partium  vini 
mutatur;  non  enim  ipsius  quantitas,  aut 
materia  imminuitur,  aut  mutatur  :  vide- 
mus  enim  lagenam  vino  plenam  tractu  tern- 
poris  evadere  plenam  aceto,  nullatenus  mu- 
tatam  circa  quantitatem  materice ,  quce 
prius  ibi  extabat,  sed  tantum  mutato  par- 
tium essentiali  ordine  :  nam  sulphur, 
quod,  ut  diximus,  erat  phlegmati  unitumy 
ac  a  tartaro  separatum,  iterum  tartaro  im- 
plicatur,  et  cum  eo  Jixatur,  et  proinde  si 
distilletur  acetum,  primo  prodit  phlegma 
insipidum,  et  post  spiritus  aceti,  qui  est 
sulphur  vini  illaqueatum  particulis  tartari 
minus  jixi.  Mutatio  autem  essentialis  par- 
tium supradictarum  variat  substantiam  li- 
qtioris  expressi  ab  uva,  quod  manifeste  pa- 
tet  ex  variis  et  contrariis  effectibus,  quos 
causant  mustum,  vinum,  et  acetum,  et  vi- 
num  lentum,  quod  vocatur  corruptum,  ut 
proinde  duo  prima  apta  materia  sint  ad 
consecrationem,  secus  alia  duo.  Hanc porro 
vini  economiam  hausimus  ab  erudito  opere 
Nicolai  Lemerii,  Regis  Galliarum  aroma- 
tarii.  Curs,  de  Chimi.,  p.  2.  c.  9. 

Demoniality  io5 

as  is  shown  by  every  day  experience.  Now, 
in  said  fermentation  the  essential  order  of 
the  parts  of  wine  is  altered,  but  not  so  its 
quantity  nor  its  matter,  which  neither 
changes  nor  decreases  :  a  bottle  that  had 
been  filled  with  wine  is,  after  a  certain 
time,  found  to  be  filled  with  vinegar,  with- 
out any  alteration  in  its  quantity  of 
matter ;  the  essential  order  of  its  parts  has 
alone  been  modified  :  the  brimstone,  which, 
as  we  have  said,  was  united  to  the  phlegm 
and  separated  from  the  tartar,  becomes 
again  involved  and  fixed  with  the  tartar;  so 
that,  on  distilling  the  vinegar,  there  issues 
from  it  first  an  insipid  phlegm,  and  then  spi- 
rits of  vinegar,  which  are  the  brimstone  of 
wine  intermixed  with  particles  of  tartar  that 
is  less  fixed.  Now,  the  essential  shifting  of 
the  aforesaid  parts  alters  the  substance  of 
the  juice  of  the  grapes,  as  is  clearly  shown 
by  the  varied  and  contrary  effects  of  must, 
wine,  vinegar,  and  ropy  or  spoiled  wine  ; 
for  which  cause  the  two  first  are  fit,  but 
the  two  last  unfit  materials  for  consecra- 
tion. We  have  borrowed  the  above  expo- 
sition of  the  economy  of  wine  from  the 
able  work  of  Nicholas  Lemery,  perfumer 
to  the  King  of  France,  Course  of  Che- 
mistry^ p.  2.  c.  q. 

io6  Daemonialitas 

56.  Datam  ergo  naturalem  doctrinam 
applicando  consequenter  dico,  quod  data 
dictorum  animalium  corporeitate  subtili 
et  tenui,  sicut  corpora  liquidorum,  et  data 
pariter  eorumdem  organi^atione  etfgura- 
tione,  quce  partium  essentialem  ordinatio- 
nem  exigunt,  non  sequerentur  inconvenien- 
tia  ex  adverso  illata  :  7iam  sicut  [quemad- 
modum  dicebamiis)  ex  confusione  partium 
vini,  et  diver sa  ipsarum  accidentali  posi- 
tione  non  variatur  ordinatio  .earumdem  es- 
sentialis^  ita  esset  in  corpore  tenui  dicto- 
rum animalium. 

57.  Quinta  interrogatio  est,  an  talia  ob- 
noxia  essent  cegritudinibus,  ac  aliis  im- 
perfectionibus,  quibus  homines  labor  ant,  ut 
ignorantia,  metu,  segnitie,  sensuum  impc' 
dimentis,  etc.?  An  laborando  lassarentur, 
et  ad  virium  reparaiionem  egerent  somno, 
cibo,  ac  potu,  et  quo?  et  consequenter  an 
interirent,  et  subinde,  an  a  cceteris  anima- 
libus  casu,  aut  ruina  possent  occidi? 

58.  Respondeo,  quod  ex  quo  corpora  ip- 
sorum,  quamvis  tenuia,  essent  materiata, 
essent  quidem  corruptioni  obnoxia;  et  ex 
consequenti  possent  pati  ab  agentibus  con- 
trariis,  et  ita  cegrotare,  puta,  aut  simpli- 

Derrioniality  107 

56.  If  now  we  apply  that  natural  doctrine 
to  our  subject,  I  say  that,  being  given  the 
corporeity  of  the  animals  in  question,  sub- 
tile and  slender  like  the  substance  of 
liquids;  being  given  also  their  organisation 
an  dfigure,  which  demand  an  essential  order 
of  the  various  parts,  an  adverse  supposition 
could  raise  no  argument  contrary  to  their 
existence;  for,  just  as  the  jumbHng  together 
of  the  parts  of  wine  and  the  diversity  of 
their  accidental  dispositions  do  not  alter 
their  essential  order,  even  so  it  would  be 
with  the  slender  frame  of  our  animals. 

57.  Fifth  question  :  Would  those  animals 
be  subject  to  diseases  and  other  infirmities 
under  which  mankind  lies,  such  as  igno- 
rance, fear,  idleness,  sensual  paralysis,  etc? 
Would  they  be  wearied  through  labour,  and 
require,  for  recruiting  their  strength,  sleep, 
food,  drink?  And  what  food,  what  drink  ? 
Would  they  be  fated  to  die,  and  might 
they  be  killed  casually,  or  by  the  instru- 
mentality of  other  animals  ? 

58. 1  reply  :  Their  bodies,  though  subtile, 
being  material,  they  would  of  course  be 
liable  to  decay :  they  might  therefore  suffer 
from  adverse  agencies,  and  consequently 
be  diseased  ;  that  is,  their  organs  might 

io8  Daemonialitas 

.  citer,   aut  nisi  cegre,  ^perverse,  aiit  vitiose 
prcestare  non  posse  munera,  ad  quce  eorum 
organa  essent  ordinata ;   in   hoc  siqiiidem 
consistit  animalium  quorumdam  ccgritudo 
qucevis  :  ut  resolutive  docet  prcestantissi- 
mus  Michael  Ettmullerus,  Physiol,  c.  5., 
thes.  I.  Verum  est,  quod  ex  eo  quod  tantam 
materia^  crassitatem  non  haberent,  et  forte 
ex  tot  elementorum  mixtione  eorum  cor- 
pus non  constaret,  et  minus  compositum  es- 
set   quam  humanum,  non  tam  facile  pate- 
rentur  a  contrariis,    et   consequenter   non 
tot  cegritudinibus  velut  homines  essent  ob" 
noxia,  et  longiorem^  etiam  homine,  vitam 
ducerent  :  quo  enim  perfect ius  est  animal, 
a  tota  specie,  etiam  cceteris  diutius   vivit, 
ut  patet  de  specie  humana,  cujus  vita  lon- 
gior  cceteris  animalibus  est.  Nee  enim  ad- 
mit to   scecularem    vitam  cornicum^  cervo- 
rum,  corvorum  etsimilium,  de  quibus  more 
suo  fabulatur  Plinius,  et  ejus  somnia  sine 
prcevia  discussione  secuti  sunt  cceteri :  quan- 
doquidem  nullus  est,  qui  talium  animalium 
natale  et  interitumfideliteradnotaverit,  ut 
pari  modo  de  eo  scripserit;  sed  insolitam 
diufabulam  quisque  secutus  est ,-  sicut  etiam 
illud,  quod   de  phoenice  dicitur,  quod   ut 
quid  fabulosum,  circa  ejus  vitce  spatium 
recensetTacitus,  L   6.  Annal.  Inferendum 
subinde  esset  quod  illorum  animalium  vita. 

Demoniality  109 

not  perform,  or  painfully  and  imperfectly 
perform  the  office   assigned  to  them,  for 
therein  consist  all  diseases  whatever  with 
certain  animals,  as  has  been  distinctly  ex- 
plained  by   the  most  illustrious  Michael 
EttmuUer,  Physiology^  c.  v.  thesis  i.  In 
sooth,  their  body  being  less  gross  than  the 
human   frame,   comprising   less    elements 
mixed  together,  and   being  therefore  less 
composite,  they  would  not  so  easily  suffer 
from  adverse  influences,  and  would  there- 
fore be  less  liable  to   disease   than  man ; 
their  life  would  also  exceed  his;  for,  the 
more   perfect  an  animal,  as  a  species,    the 
longer  its    days  ;   thus    mankind,   whose 
existence  extends  beyond  that  of  other  ani- 
mals. For  I  do  not  believe  in  the  centenary 
existence  of  crows,  stags,  ravens  and  the 
like,  of  which   Pliny  tells  his   customary 
stories  ;  and  although  his  dreams  have  been 
reechoed  by  others  without  previous  in- 
quiry, it  is  no  less  clear  that  before  writing 
thus,  not  one  has  faithfully  noted  the  birth 
nor  the  death  of  those  animals  :  they  have 
been  content  with  taking  up  the  strange 
fable,  as  has  been  the  case  with  the  Phenix, 
whose  longevity  is  discarded  as  a  story  by 
Tacitus,  AnnalSy  b.  6.  It  were  therefore  to 
be  inferred  that  the  animals  we  are  speaking 
of  would  live  longer  still  than  man ;  for,  as 

no  Dsemonlalitas 

etiam  hiimana  deberet  esse  diuturnior  :  ut 
enim  infra  dicemus,  ilia  essent  homine  no- 
biliora;  consequenter  dicendiim  esset,quod 
essent  obnoxia  caHeris  corporeis  pathema- 
tis,  et  qiiiete^  et  cibo  indigerent,  quale  dixi- 
mus  supra,  n"  5o.  Quia  vero  rationalia,  et 
proinde   disciplinabilia    essent,   ex   conse- 
quenti  etiam  capacia  ignorantia%  si  eorum 
ingenia  non  essent  exculta  studiis,  et  disci- 
plina,    et  inter  ea  pro    intellectus   eorum 
majori,   et   minori  acumine  essent  aliqua 
magis,  aliqua  minus  in  scientiis  excellen- 
tia  :  imiversaliter  vero,  et  a  tota  specie  es- 
sent homine  doctiora,  non   ob  eorum  cor- 
•poream  subtilitatem,  turn  forte,   ob  majo- 
rem  spirituum  activitatem,  tum  ob  diutur-- 
niorem    vitce    durationem,  in   qua  plura, 
qtiam  homines  discere  possent,  quas  causas 
assignat D .Augustiniis,  lib.  de  Divin.  Deem. 
c.  3.  init.  tom.  3.,  et  lib.  de  Spir.  et  Anima, 
c.  3y.,  pro  futurorum  prcenotione  in  Bce- 
monibus.  Ab  agentibus  autem  naturalibus 
pati  quidem  possent,  ac  dificultcr  occidi  ra- 
tione   velocitatis,   qua  possunt  se    subtra- 
here  a  nocentibus ;  quapropter,  nee  a  bru- 
tis,    nee   ab    homine    armis   naturalibus, 
seu  artificialibus  nisi  maxima  di/ficultate 
possent  occidi,  aut   mutilari,  et  maxima 
eorumdem  velocitate  in  declinando  contra^ 
rium    impetum.    Possent    vero  in  somno 

Demoniality  1 1 1 

shall  be  said  below,  they  would  be  more 
noble  than  he;  consequently  also ,  they 
would  be  subject  to  the  other  bodily  affec- 
tions, and  require  rest  and  food,  as  mentio- 
ned, number  5o.  Now,  as  rational  beings 
amenable  to  discipline,  they  might  also 
continue  ignorant,  if  their  minds  did  not 
receive  the  culture  of  study  and  instruction, 
and  some  amongst  them  would  be  more 
or  less  versed  in  science,  more  or  less  clever, 
according  as  their  intelligence  had  been 
more  or  less  trained..  However,  generally 
speaking,  and  considering  the  whole  of  the 
species,  they  would  be  more  learned  than 
men,  not  from  the  subtilty  of  their  body, 
but  perhaps  because  of  the  greater  activity 
of  their  mind  or  the  longer  space  of  their 
life,  which  would  enable  them  to  learn 
more  things  than  men  :  such  are  indeed 
the  motives  assigned  by  S.  Austin  [Divin. 
Demon,  ch.  3.  and  Spirit  and  Soul^  ch.  3;), 
to  the  prescience  of  the  future  in  Demons. 
They  might  indeed  suffer  from  natural 
agencies ;  but  they  could  hardly  be  killed, 
on  account  of  the  speed  with  which  they 
could  escape  from  danger ;  it  is  therefore 
most  unlikely  that  they  could,  withoi5t  the 
greatest  difficulty,  be  put  to  death  or  mu- 
tilated by  beast  or  by  man,  with  natural  or 
artificial  weapons,  so  quick  would  they  be 

112  Daemonialitas 

aut  in  non  advertentia  occidi,  et  mutilari  a 
corpore  solido,  ut  ense  vibrato  ab  homine, 
aut  lapide  delapso  per  ruinam,  quia  eorum 
corpus  licet  tenue,  tamen  et  quantum^  et 
divisibile  esset ,  velut  aer  qui  ferro,  fuste^ 
aut  alio  corpore  solido  dividitur  quamvis 
tenuis  sit.  Eorum  autem  spiritus  imparti- 
bilis  esset.  et  ceu  anima  hominis  totus  in 
toto,  et  totus  in  quavis  corporis  parte.  Hinc 
jieret  quod  diviso  corpore  ipsorum,  utprce- 
fertur,  per  aliud  corpus,  sequi  posset  mu- 
tilatio,  et  proinde  etiam  mors  :  non  enim 
fieri  posset  ut  diviso  corpore  idem  spiritus 
utramque  partem  informaret,  cum  ipse  in- 
divisibilis  esset.  Verum  est  quod  sicut  par- 
tes aeris  divisce,  per  intermedium  corpus, 
hoc  sublato  iterum  uniuntur,  et  evadit  idem 
aer,  possent^par iter  partes  corporis  divisce, 
ut  supra  ponitur,  reuniri,  et  ab  eodem  spi~ 
ritu  revivificari.  Sed  hoc  modo  nequirent 
talia  animalia  ab  agentibus  naturalibus 
aut  artificialibus  occidi  :  sed  rationabilior 
esset  prima  positio ;  ex  hoc  enim,  quod 
communicarent  cum  cceteris  in  materia, 
cequum  est,  ut  a  ca^teris  etiam  usque  ad 
eorum  interitum  pati  possent,  ut  fit  cum 

Demonialitjr  1 1 3 

at  avoiding  the  impending  blow.  Yet,  they 
might  be  killed  or  mutilated  in  their  sleep, 
or  in  a  moment  of  inadvertence,  by  means 
of  a  solid  body,  such  as  a  sword  brandished 
by  a  man,  or  the  fall  of  a  heavy  stone ; 
for,  although  subtile,  their  body  would  be 
divisible,  just  like  air  which,  though  vapo- 
rous, is  yet  divided  by  a  sword,  a  club,  or 
any  other  solid  body.  Their  spirit,  however, 
would  be  indivisible,  and  like  the  human 
soul,  entire  in  the  whole  and  in  each  and 
every  part  of  the  body.  Consequently,  the 
division  of  their  body  by  another  body,  as 
aforesaid,  might  occasion  mutilation  and 
even  death  ,  for  the  spirit,  itself  indivisible, 
could  not  animate  both  parts  of  a  divided 
body.  True,  just  as  the  parts  of  air,  sepa- 
rated by  the  agency  of  a  body,  unite  again 
as  soon  as  that  body  is  withdrawn,  and 
constitute  the  same  air  as  before,  even  so 
the  parts  of  the  body  divided,  as  above-men- 
tioned, might  unite  and  be  revived  by  the 
same  spirit.  But  then,  it  must  be  inferred 
that  those  animals  could  not  be  slain  by 
natural  or  artificial  agencies  :  and  it  were 
more  rational  to  keep  to  our  first  position; 
for,  if  sharing  matter  with  other  creatures, 
it  is  natural  that  they  should  be  liable  to 
suffer  through  those  creatures,  according  to 
the  common  rule,  and  even  unto  death. 

114  Daemonialitas 

59.  Sexta  interrogatio  est,  an  ipsorum 
corpora  possent  alia  corpora  penetrare,  ut 
parietes,  ligna,  metalla,  vilriim,  etc.,  et  an 
multa  ipsorum  possent  in  eodem  loco  ma- 
teriali  consistere,  et  ad  quantum  spatium 
extenderetur ,  sen  restringeretur  eorum 

60.  Respondeo,  quod  cum  in  omnibus 
corporibus  quantumvis  compactis  dentur 
pori,  ut  ad  sensum  patet  in  metallis,  de  qui- 
bus  major  esset  ratio,  quod  in  ipsis  non 
darentur  pori  :  microscopio  perfecte  elabo- 
rato  discernuntur  pori  metallorum,  cum 
suis  diver  sis  jigur  is,  utique  possent  per  po- 
ros  insinuari  quibusvis  corporibus,  etho'; 
modo  ista  penetrare,  quantumvis  tales  pori 
penetrari  non  possent  ab  alio  liquore,  aut 
spiritu  materiali,  aut  vini,  salis  ^mmo- 
niaci,  aut  similium,  quia  longe  tenuiora 
essent  istis  liquoribus  illorum  \  corpora. 
Quamvis  autem  plures  Angeli  possint  esse 
in  eodem  loco  materiali,  et  etiam  restringi 
ad  locum  minorem  minore  non  tamen  in 
infinitum,  ut  probat  Scotus  in  2.  dist.  2.  q. 
6.  §  Ad  proposi.  et  qucost.  8.,  per  totum, 
hoc  tamen  concedendum  non  esset  de  cor- 
poribus talium  animalium,'  tum  quia  cor- 
pora ipsa  essent  quanta,  et  eorum  dimen- 
sio  non   esset  reciproce  penetrabilis ;  tum 

Demoniality  1 1 5 

59.  Sixth  question  :  Could  their  bodies 
penetrate  other  bodies,  such  as  walls,  wood, 
metals,  glass,  etc  ?  Could  many  of  them 
abide  together  on  the  same  material  spot, 
and  to  what  space  would  their  body  extend 
or  be  restrained  ? 

60.  I  reply  :  In  all  bodies,  however  com- 
pact, there  are  pores,  as  is  apparent  in 
metals  where,  more  than  in  other  bodies, 
it  would  seem  there  should  be  none  ; 
through  a  perfect  microscope  the  pores  of 
metals  are  discerned,  with  their  different 
shapes.  Now,  those  animals  might,  through 
the  pores,  creep  into,  and  thus  penetrate 
any  other  bodies,  although  such  pores 
were  impervious  to  other  liquors  or  ma- 
terial spirits,  of  wine,  ammoniacal  salt, 
or  the  like,  because  their  bodies  would 
be  much  more  subtle  than  those  liquors. 
However,  notwithstanding  many  Angels 
may  abide  together  on  the  same  material 
spot,  and  even  confine  themselves  in  a 
lesser  and  lesser  space,  though  not  infini- 
tely, as  is  shown  by  Scott,  yet  it  were  rash 
to  ascribe  the  same  power  to  those  ani- 
mals ;  for,  their  bodies  are  determined  in 
substance  and  impervious  to  each  other  ; 
and  if  two  glorious   bodies  cannot  abide 

ii6  Daemonialitas 

quia  si  duo  corpora  gloriosa  non  possuni  esse 
in  eodem  loco,  quamvis  possent  simul  esse 
gloriosum,  et  non  gloriosum,  ut  voluit  Goto- 
fredus  de  Fontibus,  quodlibet  6.  q.S.,a  quo 
non  discordat  Scotus  in  i.  distinct.  2.  q.  8. 
in  fine;  multo  minus  possent  simul  esse  isto- 
rum  corpora,  quce,  licet  subtiliay  non  tamen 
cequarent  subtilitatem  corporis  gloriosi. 
Quo  autem  ad  extensionem  et  restrictio- 
nem,  dicendum  esset,  quod  sicut  ex  rarefac- 
tione,  et  condensation^  majus  aut  minus 
spatium  occupatur  ab  acre,  qui  etiam  arte 
potest  constringi,  ut  in  minori  loco  conti- 
neatur,  quam  sit  suce  quantitati  naturaliter 
debitus,  ut  patet  in  magnis  pilis  lusoriis, 
quce  per  fistulam  seu  tubum  infiatorium 
infiantur  :  in  his  siquidem  aer  violenter 
immittitur,  et  constringitur,  et  ejus  major 
ibi  continetur  quantitas,  quam  naturalis 
pilce  capacitas  exigat;  ita  pari/ormiter  ta- 
lia  corpora  ex  ipsorum  naturali  virtute 
possent  ad  majus  spatium,  non  tamen  exce- 
dens  eorum  quantitatem,  extendi  :  ut  pa- 
riter  etiam  restringi,  non  tamen  circa  de- 
terminatum  locum  suce  quantitati  debitum, 
Et  quia  ipsorum  nonnulla,  prout  etiam  in 
hominibus  est,  essent  magna,  et  nonnulla 
parva,  congruum  esset,  ut  magna  possent 
plus  extendi,  quam  parva,  et  hcec  admino- 
rem  locum  restringi,  quam  magna. 

Demoniality  117 

together  on  the  same  spot,  though  a  glo- 
rious and  a  non  glorious  one  may  do  so, 
according  to  some  Doctors,  much  less 
would  it  be  possible  for  the  bodies  of  those 
animals,  which  are  indeed  subtile,  yet  do 
not  attain  to  the  subtility  of  the  glorious 
body.  As  regards  their  power  of  extension 
or  compression,  we  may  instance  the  case 
of  air,  which,  rarefied  and  condensed,  oc- 
cupies more  or  less  room,  and  may  even, 
by  artificial  means,  be  compressed  into  a 
narrower  space  than  would  be  naturally 
due  to  its  volume;  as  is  seen  with  those 
large  balls  which,  for  amusement,  one 
inflates  by  means  of  a  blow-pipe  or  tube  : 
air,  being  forced  into  them  and  compressed, 
is  held  in  larger  quantity  than  is  warranted 
by  the  capacity  of  the  ball.  Similarly  the 
bodies  of  the  animals  we  are  speaking  of 
might,  by  their  natural  virtue,  extend  to  a 
larger  space,  not  exceeding  however  their 
own  substance ;  they  might  also  contract, 
but  not  beyond  the  determined  space  due 
to  that  same  substance.  And,  considering 
that  of  their  number,  as  with  men,  some 
would  be  tall  and  some  short,  it  were  pro- 
per that  the  tall  should  be  able  to  extend 
more  than  the  short,  and  the  short  to  con- 
tract more  than  the  tall. 

ii8  Dasmonialitas 

6i.  Septima  interrogatio  est,  an  hujus- 
modi  animalia  in  peccato  originali  nasce- 
rentur,  et  a  Christo  Domino  fuissent  re- 
dempta ;  an  ipsis  conferretur  gratia,  et  per 
quce  sacramenta ,-  sub  qua  lege  viverent,  et 
an  beatitudinis  et  damnationis  essent  ca- 
acia  ? 

62.  Respondeo,  quod  articulus  Fidei  est, 
quod  Christus  Dominus  pro  universa  crea- 
tura  rationali  gratiam  et  gloriam  meruit. 
Pariter  articulus  Fidei  est,  quod  Creatures 
rationali  gloria  non  confertur  nisi  prcece- 
dat  in  ea  gratia,  quce  est  dispositio  ad 
gloriam.  Similis  articulus  est  quod  gloria 
non  confertur  nisi  per  merita.  Hcec  vero 
fundantur  in  observantia  perfecta  manda- 
torum  Dei-  adimpleta  per  gratiam.  Ex  his 
satis  jit  positis  interrogationibus.  Incertum 
est  an  tales  Creatura^  originaliter  pecca- 
vissent,  necne.  Certum  tamen  est,  quod  si 
ipsarum  Prothoparens  peccasset,  sicut  pec- 
cavit  Adam,  ipsius  descendentes  in  peccato 
originali  nascerentar,  quemadmodum  nas- 
cuntur  homines. Et  quia  Deus  nunquam  re- 
liquit  Creaturam  rationalem  sine  remedio, 
dum  ipsa  est  in  via;  si  hujusmodi  creaturce 
in  peccato  originali,  aut  actuali  injiceren- 
tur,  Deus  providisset  illis  de  remedio,  sed 
quale  sit,  anfecisset,  noverit  Deus,  nove- 

Demonialitjr  1 1 9 

61.  Seventh  question:  Would  those  ani- 
mals be  born  in  original  sin,  and  have 
been  redeemed  by  the  Lord  Christ?  Would 
the  grace  have  been  conferred  upon  them 
and  through  what  sacraments?  Under  what 
law  would  they  live,  and  would  they  be 
capable  of  beatitude  and  damnation? 

62.  I  reply  :  It  is  an  article  of  belief  that 
Christ  has  merited  grace  and  glory  for  all 
rational  creatures  without  exception.  It  is 
also  an  article  of  belief  that  glory  is  not 
conferred  on  a  rational  creature  until  such 
creature  has  been  previously  endowed 
with  grace,  which  is  the  disposition  to  glory. 
According  to  a  like  article,  glory  is  con- 
ferred but  by  merits.  Now,  those  merits 
are  grounded  on  the  perfect  observance  of 
the  commands  of  God,  which  is  accom- 
plished through  grace.  The  above  questions 
are  thus  solved.  Whether  those  creatures 
did  or  did  not  sin  originally  is  uncertain. 
It  is  clear,  however,  that  if  their  first  Pa- 
rent had  sinned  as  Adam  sinned,  his  de- 
scent would  be  born  in  original  sin,  as  men 
are  born.  And,  as  God  never  leaves  a  ratio- 
nal creature  without  a  remedy,  so  long  as 
it  treads  the  way,  if  those  creatures  were 
infected  with  original  or  with  actual  sin, 
God  would  have   provided  them  with  a 

120  Daemonialitas 

rint  ipsce.  Hoc  certiim  est,  si  inter  ipsas 
essent  eadem,  aut  alia  sacramenta,  ac  sunt 
in  Ecclesia  humana  militanti,  ipsa  habuis- 
sent,  et  institutionem,  et  efficaciam  a  me- 
ntis Jesu  Christi,  qui  omnium  creaturarum 
rationalium  Redemptor  et  Satis/actor  uni- 
versalis est.  Convenientissimum  pariter , 
immo  necessarium  esset  quod  sub  aliqua 
lege  a  Deo  sibi  data  viverent,  ut  per  ip- 
sius  observantiam  possent  sibi  beatitudi- 
nem  mereri,-  qucenam  autem  lex  fuisset,  an 
naturalis  tantum ,  aut  scripta,  Mosaica, 
aut  Evangelica,  aut  alia  ab  his  omnibus 
differens,  prout  Deo  placuisset,  hoc  nobis 
incognitum.  Qiioquomodo  autem  fuisset, 
nulla  resultaret  repugnantia  possibilitatem 
talium  creaturarum  excludens. 

63.  Unicumporro  argumentum,  et  quidem 
satis  debile  post  longam  meditationem  mihi 
subit  contra  talium  creaturarum  possibilita- 
tem :  et  est  quod  si  tales  creaturce  in  Mundo 
existerent.  de  ipsis  notitia  aliqua  tradita 
fuisset  a  Philosophis,  Sacra  Scriptura,  Tra- 
ditione  Ecclesiastica,  aut  Sanctis  Patribus ; 
quod  cum  non  fuerit,  tales  creaturas  mi- 
nime  possibiles  esse  concludendum  est. 

Demoniality  121 

remedy  ;  but  whether  it  is  the  case,  and  of 
what  kind  is  the  remedy,  is  a  secret  between 
God  and  them.  Surely,   if  they  had  sacra- 
ments identical  with  or  different  from  those 
in  use  in  the  human  Church  militant,  for 
the   institution  and   efficacy   thereof  they 
would  be  indebted  to  the  merits  of  Jesus- 
Christ,  the  Redeemer  and  universal  Atoner 
of  all  rational  creatures.  It  would  likewise 
be  highly  proper,  nay  necessary,  that  they 
should  live  under  some  law  given  them  by 
God,  and  through  the  observance  of  which 
they   might   merit  beatitude  ;    but  what 
would  be  that  law,  whether  merely  natural 
or  written,  Mosaic  or  Evangelical,  or  diffe- 
rent from  all  these  and  specially  instituted 
by  God,  that  we  are  ignorant  of.  Whatever 
it  might  be  though,  there  would  follow  no 
objection  exclusive  of  the  possible  existence 
of  such  creatures. 

63.  The  only  argument,  and  that  a  rather 
lanie  one,  which  long  meditations  has  sug- 
gested to  me  against  the  possibility  of  such 
creatures,  is  that,  if  they  really  existed  in 
the  World,  we  should  find  them  mentioned 
somewhere  by  Philosophers,  Holy  Scrip- 
ture, Ecclesiastical  Tradition,  or  the  Holy 
Fathers  :  such  not  being  the  case,  their 
utter  impossibility  should  be  inferred. 

122  Daemonialitas 

64.  Sed  hoc  argumentum,  quod  revera 
magis  pulsat  existentiam,  quam  pos'sibili- 
tatem  illarum,  facili  negotio  solvitiir  ex 
Us  qucB  prcemissimus  supra  w°  41.  et  ^2. 
Argumentum  enim  ab  auctoritate  negativa 
non  tenet.  Prceterquam  quod  falsum  est, 
quod  de  illis  notitiam  non  tradiderint  turn 
Philosophi,  tum  Scriptura,  tum  Patres. 
Plato  siquidem,  ut  refert  Apuleius  de  Deo 
Socratis  et  Plutarchus  de  Isid.  apud  Baro- 
nem,  Scot.  Defens.,  torn.  9.  Apparat.jt?.  i. 
fol.  2.,  voluit  Dcemones' esse  animalia  ge- 
nere ,  animo  passiva,  mente  rationalia, 
corpore  aerea,  tempore  ccterna  :  creaturas- 
que  istas  nomine  D^emonum  intitulavit ; 
quod  tamen  nomen  non  male  sonat  ex  se  : 
importat  enim  plenum  sapientia;  Unde 
cum  Diabolum  [Angelum  nempe  malum) 
volunt  ductores  exprimere,  non  simpliciter 
Da'monem  sed  Cacodaemonem  vocant :  si- 
cut  Eudasmonem,  quando  bonum  Angelum 
volunt  intelligi.  Similiter  in  Scriptura 
Sacra  et  Patribus.^  de  dictis  creaturis  ha- 
betur  mentio,  et  de  hoc  infra  dicemus. 

65.  Stabilita  hue  usque  talium  creatura- 
rum  possibilitate,  ad  earumdem  existen- 
tiam probandam  descendamus.  Supposita 
tot  historiarum  veritate  de  coitu  hujusmodi 
Incuborum  et  Succuborum  cum  hominibus 

Demoniality  i23 

64.   But  that  argument   which,  in  fact, 
calls  in  question  their  existence  rather  than 
their  possibility,  is  easily  disposed  of  by 
our  premises,    Nrs   41  and  42;    for    no 
argument  can  stand  in  virtue  of  a  negative 
authority.  Besides,  it  is  not  correct  to  assert 
thatneither  the  Philosophers,  northe  Scrip- 
tures, nor  the  Fathers  have  handed  down 
any  notion  of  them.  Plato,  as  is  reported 
by  Apuleius  [The  Demon  of  Socrates)  and 
Plutarch    {his  and  Osiris)^   declared  that 
Demons  were  beings  of  the  animal  kind, 
passive  souls,  rational  intelligences,  aerial 
bodies,  everlasting;  and  he  gave  them  the 
name  of  Demons^  which  of  itself  is  nowise 
offensive,  since  it  means  replete  with  wisdom; 
so  that,  when  authors  allude  to  the  Devil 
(or  Evil  Angel),   they  do  not  merely  call 
him  Demon,  but  Cacodemon,  and  say  like- 
wise Eudemon,  when  speaking  of  a  good 
Angel.  Those  creatures  are  also  mentioned 
in  Scripture  and  by  the  Fathers,  as  shall 
be  said  hereafter. 

65.  Now  that  we  have  proved  that  those 
creatures  are  possible,  let  us  go  a  step 
further,  and  show  that  they  exist.  Taking 
for  granted  the  truth  of  the  recitals  concer- 
ning the  intercourse  of  Incubi  and  Succubi 

1 24  Daemonialitas 

et  brutis,  ita  ut  hoc  negare  impudentia  vi- 
deatur,  ut  ait  D.  Augustinus  quern  dedi- 
mus  supra  w»  10.,  ita  arguo  :  Ubi  reperitur 
propria  passio  sensus,  ibidem  necessario 
reperitur  sensus  ipse,  cum  juxta  principia 
philosophica  propria  passio  JIuat  a  natura, 
sive  ubi  reperiuntur  actiones,  seu  opera- 
tiones  sensus,  ibidem  reperitur  sensus  ipse, 
cum  operationes  et  actiones  sint  a  forma. 
Atqui  in  hujusmodi  Incubis  aut  Succubis, 
sunt  actiones,  operationes,  acpropricepassio- 
nes,  quce  sunt  a  sensibus;  ergo  in  iisdem  re- 
peritur sensus  :  sed  sensus  reperiri  nequit 
nisi  adsint  organa  composita^  nempe  ex 
potentia  animce  et  determinata  parte  cor- 
poris :  ergo  in  iisdem  reperiuntur  corpus 
et  anima ;  erunt  igitur  animalia  :  sed 
etiam  in  ipsis  et  ab  ipsis  sunt  actiones, 
et  operationes  animce  rationalis  :  ergo 
eorum  anima  erit  rationalis  :  et  ita  de 
primo  ad  ultimum  tales  Incubi  sunt  ani- 
malia rationalia. 

66.  Minor  probatur  quoad  singulas  ejus 
partes.  Passio  siquidem  appetitiva  coitus 
est  passio  sensus;  moeror,  ac  tristitia,  ac 
iracundia  et  furor  ex  coitu  denegato  pas- 
siones  sensus  sunt,  ut  patet  in  quibusvis 

Demoniality  i25 

with  men  and  beasts,  recitals  so  numerous 
that  it  would  look  like  impudence  to  deny 
the  fact,  as  is  said  by  St  Austin,  whose 
testimony  is  given  above  (Nr  lo),  I  argue  : 
Where  the  peculiar  passion  of  the  sense  is 
found,  there  also,  of  necessity,  is  the  sense 
itself;  for,  according  to  the  principles  of 
philosophy,  the  peculiar  passion  flows  from 
nature,  that  is  to  say  :  that,  where  the  acts 
and  operations  of  the  sense  are  found,  there 
also  is  the  sense,  the  operations  and  acts 
being  but  its  external  form.  Now,  those, 
Incubi  and  Succubi  present  acts,  opera- 
tions, peculiar  passions,  which  spring  from 
the  senses ;  they  are  therefore  endowed  with, 
senses.  But  senses  cannot  exist  without 
concomitant  composite  organs,  without  a 
combination  of  soul  and  body.  Incubi  and 
Succubi  have  therefore  body  and  soul,  and, 
consequentially,  are  animals;  buttheiracts 
and  operations  are  also  those  of  a  rational 
soul;  their  soul  is  therefore  rational;  and 
thus,  from  first  to  last,  they  are  rational 

66.  Our  minor  is  easy  of  demonstration 
in  each  of  its  parts.  And  indeed,  the  appe- 
titive passion  of  coition  is  a  sensual  passion ; 
the  grief,  sadness,  wrath,  rage,  occasioned 
by  the  denial  of  coition,  are  sensual  pas- 

126  Daemonialitas 

animalibus;  generatio  per  coitum  est  ope^ 
ratio  sensiis^  lit  notum  est.  Hcec  porro  om- 
nia in  Incuhis  sunt  :  ut  enim  prohavimus 
supra  a  n^  25.  et  seq.,  ipsi  coitum  mulie- 
brem,  et  quandoque  virilem  appetunt,  tris- 
tantur,  et  furunt,  ut  amantes,  amentes,  si 
ipsis  denegetur;  coeunt  perfecte  et  quando- 
que generant.  Concludendum  ergo  quod 
polleant  sensu^  et  proinde  corpore;  unde 
inferendum  etiam  perfecta  animalia  esse. 
Rariter  clausis  ostiis  ac  fenestris  intrant 
iihivis  locorum  :  igitur  ipsorum  corpus  te- 
nue  est;  item  futura  pra^noscimt,  annun- 
tiant,  componunt,  ac  dividunt;  qua'  opera- 
tiones  sunt  proprice  animal  rationalis  :  ergo 
anima  rationali  pollent ;  et  ita  sunt  vera 
animalia  rationalia. 

Respondent  communiter  Doctores,  quod 
mains  Dcumon  est  ille  qui  tales  impudici- 
tias  operatur ,  quod  passiones ,  nempe 
amor  em ,  tristitiamque  simulat  ex  coitu 
denegato,  ut  a'nimas  ad  peccandum  alli- 
ciat,  et  eas  perdat;  et  si  coit,  et  generat, 
hoc  est  ex  semine,  et  in  corpore  alieno,  ut 
dictum  fuit  supra  n°  24. 

67.  Sed  contra  Incubi  nonnulli  rem  ha- 
bent  cum  equis ,  equabus ,  aliisque  etiam 
brutis,  quce  si  coitum  adversentur,  male  ab 
ipsis  tractantur,  ut  quotidiana  constat  ex- 

Demoniality  127 

sions,  as  is  seen  with  all  animals^;  genera- 
tion through  coition  is  evidently  a  sensual 
operation.  Now,  all  that  happens  with  In- 
cubi,  as  has  been  shown  above  :  they  incite 
women,  sometimes  even  men;  if  denied, 
they  sadden  and  storm,  like  lovers  :  aman- 
tes,  amentes ;  they  perfectly  practice  coi- 
tion, and  sometimes  beget.  It  must  therefore 
be  inferred  that  they  have  senses,  and  con- 
sequently a  body;  consequently  also,  that 
they  are  perfect  animals.  More  than  that : 
with  closed  doors  and  windows  they  enter 
wherever  they  please :  their  body  is  there- 
fore slender;  they  foreknow  and  foretell 
the  future,  compose  and  divide,  all  which 
operations  arc  proper  to  a  rational  soul ; 
they  therefore  possess  a  rational  soul  and 
are,  in  sooth,  rational  animals. 

Doctors  generally  retort  that  it  is  the 
Evil  Spirit  that  perpetrates  those  impure 
acts,  simulates  passions,  love,  grief  at  the 
denial  of  coition,  in  order  to  entice  souls 
to  sin  and  to  undo  them;  and  that,  if  he 
copulates  and  begets,  it  is  with  assumed 
sperm  and  body,  as  aforesaid  (Nr  24). 

67.  But  then,  there  are  Incubi  that  have 
to  do  with  horses,  mares  and  other  beasts, 
and,  as  shown  by  every  day  experience,  ill- 
treat  them  if  rebel  to  coition  ;  yet,  in  those 

128  Daemonialitas 

perientia;  sed  in  istis  cessat  ratio  adducta, 
nempe  quod  fingat  appetitum  coitus ,  ut 
animas  perdat,  cum  anima  brutorum  dam- 
nationis  ceternce  sit  incapax.  Prcoterea 
amoris  et  irce  passiones  in  ipso  contrarios 
effectus  reales  producunt.  Si  enim  aut  mu- 
lier  aut  brutum  amatum  illis  moremgerant, 
optime  ab  Incubis  tractantur  ;  viceversa 
pessime  habentur,  si  ex  denegato  coitu 
irascantur  et  furant;  et  hoc  jirmatur  quo- 
tidiana  experientia ;  ergo  in  ipsis  sunt 
verce  passiones  sensus.  Insuper  mali  Dee- 
mones,  ac  incorporei,  qui  rem  habent  cum 
Sagis  et  Maleficis^  ipsas  cogunt  ad  eorum 
adorationem,  ad  denegandam  Fidem  Or- 
thodoxam,  ad  malejicia  et  scelera  enormia 
perpetranda  tanquam  pensum  in/amis  co- 
itus, ut  supra  w°  1 1,  dictum  fuit  :  nihil  ho- 
rum  prcetendunt  Incubi,  ergo  mali  Dee- 
mones  non  sunt.  Ulterius  malus  Dcemon, 
ut  ex  Peltano  et  Thyreo  scribit  Guaccius, 
Compend.  Malef.  lib.  i.  c.  19.  fol.  128., 
ad  prolationem  nominis  Jesu  aut  Marice, 
adformationem  signi  Crucis,  ad  approxi- 
mationem  sacrarum  Reliquiarum  ,  sive 
rerum  benedictarum ,  et  ad  exorcismos, 
adjurationes ,  aut  proecepta  sacerdotum , 
aut  fugit  aut  pavet,  concutiturque^  ct  stri- 
dety  ut  conspicitur  quotidie  in  energumenis, 
et  constat   ex  tot  historiis,  quas   recitat 

Demoniality  129 

cases,  it  can  no  longer  be  adduced  that  the 
Demon  simulates  the  appetite  for  coition 
in  order  to  bring  about  the  ruin  of  souls, 
since  those  of  beasts  are  not  capable  of 
everlasting  damnation.   Besides,  love  and 
wrath  with  them   are  productive  of  quite 
opposite  effects.  For,  if  the  loved  woman 
or  beast  humours  them,  those  Incubi  be- 
have very  well;  on  the  contrary,  they  use 
them   most   savagely   when  irritated   and 
enraged  by  a  denial  of  coition  :  this  is  am- 
ply proved  by  daily  experience  :  those  In- 
cubi therefore  have  truly  sexual  passions. 
Besides,  the  Evil  Spirits,  the  incorporeal 
Demons  which  have  to  do  with  Sorceresses 
and  Witches,  constrain  them  to  Demon- 
Worship,  to  the  abjuration  of  the  Ortho- 
dox Faith,  to  the  commission  of  enchant- 
ments   and   foul    crimes,    as    preliminary 
conditions  to  the  infamous  intercourse,  as 
has  been  above-stated  (Nr  11);  now,  Incubi 
pretend  to  nothing  of  the  kind  :  they  are 
therefore  no  Evil  Spirits.  Lastly,  as  written 
by  Guaccius,  at  the  mere  utterance  of  the 
name  of  Jesus  or  Mary,  at  the  sign  of  the 
Cross,  the  approach  of  Holy  Relics  or  con- 
secrated objects,  at  exorcisms,  adjurations 
or   priestly  injunctions,  the  Evil  Demon 
either  shudders  and  takes  to  flight,  or  is 
agitated  and  howls,   as   is  daily  seen  with 

i3o  Daemonialitas 

Guaccius ,  ex  quibus  habetur,  quod  in  noc- 
tiirnis  ludis  Sag  arum  facto  ab  aliquo 
assistentium  signo  Crucis,  aut  pronuntiato 
nomine  Jesu ,  Diaboli  et  secum  Sagce 
omnes  disparuerunt.  Sed  Incubi  ad  supra- 
dicta  nee  fugiuntj  nee  pavent ,  quandoque 
cachinnis  exoreismos  excipiunt,  et  quando- 
que ipsos  Exorcisias  ccedunt,  et  sacras  ves- 
tes  discerpunt.  Quod  si  mali  Dcemones, 
utpote  a  D.  N.  J.  C.  domiti,  ad  ipsius 
nomen ,  Crucem ,  et  res  sacras  pavent  : 
boni  autem  Angeli  eisdem  rebus  gaudent, 
non  tamen  homines  ad  peccata  et  Dei  offen- 
sam  sollicitant  :  Incubi  vero  sacra  non  ti- 
ment,  et  ad  peccata  provocant,  convincitur 
ipsos  nee  malos  Dcemones,  nee  bonos  An- 
gelas esse;  sed  patet,  quod  nee  homines 
sunt,  cum'  tamen  ratione  utantur.  Quid 
ergo  erunt  ?  Si  in  termino  sunt,  et  simpli- 
ces  spiritus  sunt,  erunt  aut  damnati  aut 
beaii  :  non  enim  in  bona  Theologia  dantur 
puri  spiritus  viatores.  Si  damnati,  nomen 
et  Crucem  Christi  revererentur ;  si  beati, 
homines  ad  peccandum  non  provocarent  ; 
ergo  aliud  erunt  a  puris  spiritus;  et  sic 
erunt  corporati,  et  viatores. 

Demoniality  1 3 1 

energumensand  is  shownby  numerous  nar- 
ratives of  Guaccius  concerning  the  nightly- 
revels  of  Witches,  where,  at  a  sign  of  the 
Cross  or  the  name  of  Jesus  said  by  one 
of  the  assistants.  Devils  and  Witches  all 
vanish  together.  Incubi,  on  the  contrary, 
stand  all  those  ordeals  without  taking  to 
flight  or  showing  the  least  fear;  sometimes 
even  they  laugh  at  exorcisms  ,  strike  the 
Exorcists  themselves,  and  rend  the  sacred 
vestments.  Now,  if  the  evil  Demons,  sub- 
dued by  our  Lord  Jesus-Christ,  are  stricken 
with  fear  by  his  name,  the  Cross  and  the 
holy  things;  if,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
good  Angels  rejoice  at  those  same  things, 
without  however  inciting  men  to  sin  nor 
to  give  offense  to  God,  whilst  the  Incubi, 
without  having  any  dread  of  theholy  things, 
provoke  to  sin,  it  is  clear  that  they  are 
neither  evil  Demons  nor  good  Angels  ;  but 
it  is  clear  also  that  they  are  not  men, 
though  endowed  with  reason.  What  then 
should  they  be?  Supposing  them  to  have 
reached  the  goal,  and  to  be  pure  spirits, 
they  would  be  damned  or  blessed,  for  cor- 
rect Theology  does  not  admit  of  pure  spi- 
rits on  the  way  to  salvation.  If  damned, 
they  would  revere  the  name  and  the  Cross 
of  Christ;  if  blessed,  they  would  not  incite 
men  to  sin;  they  would  therefore  be  dif- 

i32  Daemonialitas 

68.  Prceterea  agens  materiale  non  potest 
agere  nisi  in  passum  similiter  materiale; 
tritum  siquidem  est  axioma  philosopho- 
rum,  quod  agens  et  patiens  debent  commu' 
nicare  in  subjecto;  nee  id  quod  materiatum 
est,  potest  agere  in  rem  pure  spiritualem. 
Dantur  autem  agentia  naturalia^  quce 
agunt  contra  hujusmodi  Dcemones  Incubos , 
sequitur  igitur  quod  isti  materiati,  seu 
corporei  sunt.  Minor  probatur  ex  iis  quce 
scribunt  Dioscorides,  I.  2.  c.  i68.  et  I.  i. 
c.  100.,  Plinius,  lib.  i5.  c.  4.,  Aristoteles, 
Probl.  34.,  et  Apuleius,  1.  De  Virtute 
Herbarum,  apud  Guaccium ,  Comp.  Ma- 
lef.,  /.  3..C.  i3.  fol.  3 16.,  et  confirmatur 
experientia,  nempe  de  pluribus  herbis,  la- 
pidibus  ac  animalibus,  quce  Dcemones  de- 
pellunt^  ut  ruta,  hypericon,  verbena^  scor- 
dium^  palma  Christi,  centaureum,  adamas, 
corallium,  g agates,  jaspis,  pellis  capitis 
lupi  aut  asini,  menstruum  muliebre,  et  cen- 
tum alia;  imde  habetur  26,  q.  7.  cap. final.: 
Dsemonium  sustinenti  liceat  petras,  vel 
herbas  habere  sine  incantatione.  Ex  quo 
habetur,  petras  aut  herbas  posse  sua  vi  na- 
turali  Da^monis  vires  compescere,  aliter 
Canon  hoc  non  permitteret^  sed  ut  super- 

Demoniality  1 3  3 

ferent  from  pure  spirits,  and  thiis,  have  a 
body  and  be  on  the  way  to  salvation. 

68.  Besides,  a  material  agent  cannot  act 
but  on  an  equally  material  passive.  It  is 
indeed  a  trite  philosophical  axiom,  that 
agent  and  patient  must  have  a  common 
subject :  pure  matter  cannot  act  on  any 
purely  spiritual  thing.  Now,  there  are  natu- 
ral agents  which  act  on  those  Incubi  De- 
mons :  these  are  therefore  material  or 
corporeal.  Our  minor  is  proved  by  the  tes- 
timony of  Dioscorides,  Pliny,  Aristoteles 
and  Apuleius,  quoted  by  Guaccius,  Comp. 
Male/,  b.  3,  ch.  i3,  fol.  3i6;  it  is  confir- 
med by  our  knowledge  of  numerous  herbs, 
stones  and  animal  substances  which  have 
the  virtue  of  driving  away  Demons,  such  as 
rue,  St-John's  wort,  verbena,  germander, 
palma  Ghristi,  centaury,  diamonds,  coral, 
jet,  jasper,  the  skin  of  the  head  of  a  wolf 
or  an  ass,  women's  catamenia,  and  a  hun- 
dred others:  wherefore  it  is  written  :  For 
such  as  are  assaulted  by  the  Demon  it  is 
lawful  to  have  stones  or  herbs,  but  without 
recourse  to  incantations.  It  follows  that,  by 
their  own  native  virtue,  stones  or  herbs 
can  bridle  the  Demon  :  else  the  above 
mentioned  Canon  would  not  permit  their 
use,  but  would  on  the  contrary  forbid  it  as 

1 34  Daemonialitas 

stitiosum  vetaret.  Et  de  hoc  luculentum 
exemplum  habemus  in  Sacra  Scriptura, 
ubi  Angelus  Raphael  dixit  Tobice,  c.  6, 
V.  8.  ;  Cordis  ejus  {nempe  piscis ,  quern  a 
Tigri  attraxerat)  particulam ,  si  super 
carbones  ponas,  fumus  ejus  extricat  omne 
genus  Daemoniorum.  Et  ejus  virtutem  ex- 
perientia  comprobavit  :  nam  incensojecore 
piscis,  fugatus  est  Incubus,  qui  Saram 

69.  Respondent  ad  hcec  communiter 
Theologi,  quod  talia  agentia  naturalia  in- 
choative tantum  fugant  Dcemonem,  com- 
pletive autem  vis  supernaturalis  Dei  aut 
Angeli,  ita  ut  virtus  supernaturalis  sit 
causa  primaria,  directa,  et  principalis,  na- 
turalis  autem  secondaria,  indirecta,  et  mi- 
nus principalis.  Unde  ad  probationem,  quce 
supra  adducta  est  de  Da^mone  fugato  a 
fumo  jecoris  piscis  incensi  a  Tobia,  re- 
spondet  Vallesius ,  De  Sac.  Philosoph. , 
c.  28.,  quod  tali  fumo  indita  fuit  a  Deo 
vis  supernaturalis  fugandi  Incubum,  sicut 
igni  materiali  Infer ni  data  est  virtus  tor- 
quendi  Dcvmones  et  animas  Damnatorum. 
Ad  eamdem  autem  probationem  respondet 
Lyranus,  et  Cornelius  ad  c.  6.  Tob.  v.  8., 

Demonialitjr  1 3  5 

superstitious.  We  have  a  striking  instance 
thereof  in  Holy  Scripture,  where  the  Angel 
Raphael  says  to  Tobit,  ch.  6,  v.  8,  spea- 
king of  the  fish  which  he  had  drawn 
from  the  Tigris  :  «  If  thou  puttest  on 
coals  a  particle  of  its  tiver,  the  smoke 
thereof  will  drive  away  all  kinds  of  De- 
mons. »  Experience  demonstrated  the 
trutHTof  those  words';  for,  no  sooner  was 
the  liver  of  the  fish  set  on  fire,  than  the 
Incubus  who  was  in  love  with  Sarah  was 
put  to  flight. 

69.  To  this  Theologians  usually  retort 
that  such  natural  agents  merely  initiate  the 
ejection  of  the  Demon,  and  that  the  com- 
pletive effect  is  due  to  the  supernatural 
force  of  God  or  of  the  Angel ;  so  that  the 
supernatural  force  is  the  primary,  direct 
and  principal  cause,  the  natural  force  being 
but  secondary,  indirect  and  subordinate. 
Thus,  in  order  to  explain  how  the  liver  ot 
the  fish  burnt  by  Tobit  drove  away  the 
Demon,  Vallesius  asserts  that  the  smoke 
thereof  had  been  endowed  by  God  with  the 
supernatural  power  of  expelling  the  Incu- 
bus, in  the  same  manner  as  the  material 
fire  of  Hell  has  the  virtue  of  tormenting 
Demons  and  the  souls  of  the  Damned. 
Others,  such  as  Lyranus  and  Cornelius, 

1 36  Daemonialitas 

Abulentis  in  i.  Reg.  c.  i6.  q.  46.,  Pere- 
rius  in  Daniel.,  pag.  272.,  apud  Cornel. 
loc.  cit.,  fumum  cordis  piscis  expulisse 
D^monem  inchoate  vi  naturali,  sed  com- 
plete vi  angelica  et  coelesti :  naturali  autem 
impediendo  actionem  Dcemonis  per  disposi- 
tionem  contrariam^  quia  hie  agit  per  natu- 
rales  causas  et  humores,  quorum  qualitates 
expugnantur  a  qualitatibus  contrariis  re- 
rum  naturalium,  quce  dicuntur  Da^mones 
fugare ;  et  in  eadem  sententia  sunt  omnes 
loquentes  de  arte  exorcista. 

70.  Sed  hcec  responsio,  que  tamen  validas 
habet  instantias ,  ad  plus  quadrare  potest 
contra  malos  Dcemones  obsidentes  corpora^ 
aut  per  malejicia  inferentes  ipsis  cegritu- 
dines^  aut  alia  incommoda,  sed  nullo  mode 
facit  ad  propositum  de  Incubis  :  siquidem 
isti  nee  corpora  obsident ,  nee  ipsis  ofjiciunt 
per  crgritudines  habituales,  sed  ad  plus  icti- 
bus  et  percussionibus  torquent.  Quod  si 
eqiias  coitum  adversantes  macras  reddunt, 
hoc  faciunt  subducendo  illis  cibum^  et  hoc 
modo  macrescere,  et  tandem  interire  eas 
faciunt.  Ad  hcec  autem  patfanda  non  eget 
Incubus  alicujus  rei  naturalis  applicatione 
[qua  tamen  eget,  malus  Dcemon  inferens 
agritudinem  habitualem);  ea  enim  potest  ex 
sua  vi  organica  naturali.  Par  iter  Dcemon 

Demoniality  i  Sy 

profess  that  the  smoke  of  the  heart  of  the 
fish  initiated  the  ejection  of  the  Demon  by 
native  virtue,  but  completed  it  by  angelical 
and  heavenly  virtue  :  by  native  virtue,  in- 
somuch that  it  opposed  a  contrary  action 
to  that  of  the  Demon ;  for  the  Evil  Spirit 
applies  native  causes  and  humours,  the 
native  qualities  of  which  are  combated  by 
the  contrary  qualities  of  natural  things 
known  to  be  capable  of  driving  away  De- 
mons; that  opinion  is  shared  by  all  those 
who  treat  of  the  art  of  exorcisms. 

70.  But  that  explanation,  however  plau- 
sible the  facts  upon  which  it  rests,  can  at 
most  be  received  as  regards  the  Evil  Spirits 
which  possess  bodies  or,  through  malefice, 
infect  them  with  diseases  or  other  infir- 
mities ;  it  does  not  at  all  meet  the  case  of 
Incubi.  For,  these  neither  possess  bodies 
nor  infect  them  with  diseases;  they,  at  most, 
molest  them  by  blows  and  ill-treatment.  If 
they  cause  the  mares  to  grow  lean  because 
of  their  not  yielding  to  coition,  it  is  merely 
by  taking  away  their  provender,  in  conse- 
quence of  which  they  fall  off  and  finally 
die.  To  that  purpose  the  Incubus  need  not 
use  a  natural  agent,  as  the  Evil  Spirit  does 
when  imparting  a  disease  :  it  is  enough 
that  it  should  exert  its  own  native  organic 

1 38  Daemonialitas 

malus  plerumque  obsidet  corpora,  et  infert 
cegritiidines  ad  signa  cum  ipso  conventa 
et  posita  a  Saga  aut  Malefico,  quce  signa 
multoties  res  naturales  sunt  prceditce  vi 
nativa  nocendi,  quibus  naturaliter  resistunt 
alia  par  iter  naturalia  contrarian  virtutis. 
Incubus  vero  non  sic;  quia  ex  se,  et  nulla 
concurrente  aut  Saga,  aut  Malefico,  suas 
vexationes  infert.  Prceterea  res  naturales 
fugantes  Incubos  suam  virtutem  exercent., 
ac  effectum  sortiuntur  absque  interventu 
alicujus  exorcismi  aut  sacrce  benedictionis ; 
ut  proinde  did  non  possit ,  quod  fuga  In- 
cubi  inchoative  sit  a  virtute  naturali,  com- 
pletive autem  a  vi  divina,  quia  ibi  nulla 
particularis  intervenit  divini  nominis  invo- 
catio,  sed  est  purus  effectus  rei  naturalis, 
ad  quern  non  concurrit  Deus,  nisi  concursu 
universali ,  tanquam  auctor  natures,  et 
causa  universalis,  et  prima  in  ordine  effi- 

71.  Duas  circa  hoc  historias  do,  quarum 
primam  habui  a  Confessario  Molinalium, 
viro  gravi ,  ac  fide  dignissimo.  Alterius 
vero  sum  testis  oculatus. 

Demoniality  189 

force.  Likewise,  when  the  Evil  Spirit  pos- 
sesses bodies  and  infects  them  with  diseases, 
it  is  most  frequently  through  signs  agreed 
upon  with  himself,  and  arranged  by  a  witch 
or  a  wizard,  which  signs  are  usually  natural 
objects,  indued  with  their  own  noxious 
virtue,  and  of  course  opposed  by  other 
equally  natural  objects  endowed  with  a 
contrary  virtue.  But  not  so  the  Incubus  : 
it  is  of  his  own  accord,  and  without  the 
cooperation  of  either  witch  or  wizard,  that 
he  inflicts  his  molestations.  Besides,  the 
natural  things  which  put  the  Incubi  to 
flight  exert  their  virtue  and  bring  about  a 
result  without  the  intervention  of  any  exor- 
cism or  blessing;  it  cannot  therefore  be 
said  that  the  ejection  of  the  Incubus  is  ini- 
tiated by  natural,  and  completed  by  divine 
virtue,  since  there  is  in  this  case  no  parti- 
cular invocation  of  the  divine  name,  but 
the  mere  efl"ect  of  a  natural  object,  in  which 
God  cooperates  only  as  the  universal  agent, 
the  author  of  nature,  the  first  of  efficient 

71.  To  illustrate  this  subject,  I  give  two 
stories,  the  first  of  which  I  have  from  a 
Confessor  of  Nuns,  a  man  of  weight,  and 
most  worthy  of  credit ;  the  second  I  was 
eye-witness  to. 

140  Daemonialitas 

In  quodam  Sanctimonalium  monasterio 
degebat  ad  educationem  Virgo  qucedam 
nobilis  tentata  ab  Incubo,  qui  diu  noctuque 
ipsi  apparebaty  ipsam  ad  coitum  sollici- 
tando  eniximis  precibus,  tamquam  amasius 
prce  amore  dement atiis ;  ipsa  tamen  semper 
restitit  tentanti  gratia  Dei,  ac  sacramen- 
torum  frequentia  roborata.  Incassum  abiere 
plures  devotiones,  jejunia  et  vota  facta  a 
puella  vexata,  exorcismi,  benedictiones,  et 
prcvcepta  ab  exorcistis  facta  Incubo,  ut 
desisteret  a  molestia  ilia ;  nee  quidquam 
proficiebatur  multitudo  reliquiarum^  alia- 
rumque  rerum  benedictarum  disposita  in 
camera  virginis  tentatce ,  nee  benedictce 
candelce  noctu  ibidem  ardentes  impedie- 
bant^  quominus  juxta  consuetum  appareret 
ad  tentandum  in  forma  speciosissimi  juve- 
nis.  Consultus  inter  alios  viros  doctos  fuit 
quidam  Theologus  magnce  eruditionis  : 
iste  advertens  virginem  tentatam  esse  tem- 
peramenti  phlegmatici  a  toto ,  conjeciavit 
Incubum  esse  dcemonem  aqueum  [dantur 
enim  ut  scribit  Guaccius,  Comp.  Malefic. 
/.  I.  c.  ig.fol.  129.^  Dcemones  ignei,  aerei, 
phlegmatici,  terrei,  subterranei,  et  litci- 
fugi),  et  consului,  quod  in  camera  virginis 
tentatam  continue  fieret  suffmentum  vapo- 
rosum  sequens.  Requirunt  ollam  novam 
jigulinam  vitreatam;  inhac  ponitur  calami 

Demoniality  141 

In  a  certain  monastery  of  holy  Nuns 
there  lived,  as  a  boarder,  a  young  maiden 
of  noble  birth,  who  was  tempted  by  an 
Incubus  that  appeared  to  her  by  day  and 
by  nightj  and  with  the  most  earnest  en- 
treaties, the  manners  of  a  most  passionate 
lover,  incessantly  incited  her  to  sin  ;  but 
she,  supported  by  the  grace  of  God  and  the 
frequent  use  of  the  sacraments,  stoutly 
resisted  the  temptation.  But,  all  her  devo- 
tions, fasts  and  vows  notwithstanding, 
despite  the  exorcisms,  the  blessings,  the 
injunctions  showered  by  exorcists  on  the 
Incubus  that  he  should  desist  from  molest- 
ing her;  in  spite  of  the  crowd  of  relics  and 
other  holy  objects  collected  in  the  maid- 
en's room,  of  the  lighted  candles  kept 
burning  there  all  night,  the  Incubus  none 
the  less  persisted  in  appearing  to  her  as 
usual,  in  the  shape  of  a  very  handsome 
young  man.  At  last,  among  other  learned 
men,  whose  advice  had  been  taken  on  the 
subject,  was  a  very  erudite  Theologian  who, 
observing  that  the  maiden  was  of  a  tho- 
roughly phlegmatic  temperament,  surmised 
that  that  Incubus  was  an  aqueous  Demon 
(there  are  in  fact,  as  is  testified  by  Guac- 
cius,  ign^^usj  aerial,  phlegmatic,  earthly, 
suhttrranean  demons  who  avoid  the  light 
of  day),  and  prescribed  an  uninterrupted 

142  Dasmonialitas 

aromatici^  cubebarum  seminis,  aristolochice 
utriusque  radicum,  cardamomi  majoris  et 
minoris,  gingiberis,  piperis  longi,  caryo- 
pliyllorum,  cinnamomi,  canellce  caryo- 
phyllatce,  macis^  micum  rnyristicarum, 
styracis  calamitce,  ben^oini,  ligni  ac  radi- 
cis  rodi^,  ligni  aloes,  triasantalorum  una 
uncia,  semiaqucB  vitce  librce  tres ;  ponitur 
olla  supra  cineres  calidas  ut  vapor  suffi- 
menti  ascendat,  et  eel  la  clausa  tenetur. 
Facia  suffimento  advenit  denuo  Incubus, 
sed  ingredi  cellam  nunquam  ausus  est :  sed 
si  tentata  extra  earn  ibat^  et  per  viridarium 
ac  claustra  spatiabatur^  aliis  invisibilis  si- 
bi  visus  apparebat  Incubus^  et  puellce  collo 
injectis  brachiis  violenter,  ac  quasi  furtive 
oscula  rapiebat :  quod  molestissimum  hone- 
st a;  virgini  er  at.  Consultus  denuo  Theologus 
ille  ordinavit  puella^,  ut  deferret  pixidulas 
iinguentarias  exquisitorum  odorum,  ut  mos- 
chi,  ambrcv,  ^^ibetti,  balsami  Peruviani,  ac 
aliorum  compositorum ;  quod  cum  fecisset, 
deambulanti  per  viridarium  puella^  apparuit 
Incubus  faci  minaci,  ac  furenti;  non  tamen 
ad  illam  approximavit,  sed  digitum  sibi  mo- 
mordit  tanquam  meditans  vindictam;  tan- 
dem disparuit,  nee  amplius  ab  ea  visus  fuit. 


Demoniality  143 

fumigation  in  the  room.A  new  vessel,  made 
of  glass-like  earth,  was  accordingly  brought 
in,  and  filled  with  sweet  cane,  cubeb  seed, 
roots  of  both  aristolochies,  great  and  small 
cardamon,  ginger,  long-pepper,  caryophyl- 
leae,  cinnamon,  cloves,  mace,  nutmegs, 
calamite  storax,  benzoin,  aloes-wood  and 
roots,  one  ounce  of  triasandalis,  and  three 
pounds  of  half  brandy  and  water ;  the  vessel 
was  then  set  on  hot  ashes  in  order  to  force 
up  the  fumigating  vapour,  and  the  cellwas 
kept  closed.  As  soon  as  the  fumigation  was 
done,  the  Incubus  came,  but  never  dared 
enter  the  cell ;  only,  if  the  maiden  left  it 
for  a  walk  in  the  garden  or  the  cloister,  he 
appeared  to  her,  though  invisible  to  others 
and  throwing  his  arms  round  her  neck, 
stole  or  rather  snatched  kisses  from  her, 
to  her  intense  disgust.  At  last,  after  a  new 
consultation,  the  Theologian  prescribed 
that  she  should  carry  about  her  person 
pills  made  of  the  most  exquisite  perfumes, 
such  as  musk,  amber,  chive,  Peruvian 
balsam,  and  others.  Thus  provided,  she 
went  for  a  walk  in  the  garden,  where  the 
Incubus  suddenly  appeared  to  her  with  a 
threatening  face,  and  in  a  rage.  He  did  not 
approach  her,  however,  but,  after  biting 
his  finger  as  if  meditating  revenge,  dis- 
appeared and  was  never  more  seen  by  her. 

144  Daemonialitas 

72*  Alia  historia  est,  quod  in  Conventu 
Magnce  Cartusice  Ticinensis,  fuit  quidam 
Diaconus,  nomine  dictus  Augustinus , 
maximas,  ac  inauditas,  et  pene  incredibi- 
les  sustinens  a  quodam  Dcemone  vexatio- 
nes;  quce  tolli  nullo  remedio  spirituali 
{quamvis  plura  juxta  plures  exorcistas  y 
qui  liberationem,  sed  incassum  tentarunt, 
fuissent  adhibita)  potuerunt.  Me  consuluit 
illius  Conventus  vicarius,  qui  curam  di- 
vexati,  utpote  Clerici,  ex  officio  habebat. 
Ego  videns  frustranea  fuisse  consueta 
exorcismorum  remedia,  exemplo  histories 
suprarecensitce  consului  suffimentum  si- 
mile superiori,  utque  divexatus  pixidulas 
odoramentorum  supradictas  deferret;  et 
quia  tabacchi  usum  habebat,  el  aqua  vitce 
delectabatur,  suasi  iit  et  tabaccho  et  aqua 
vitce  moschata  uteretur.  Daemon  illi  appa- 
rebat  diu  noctuque  ultra  alias  species  ^ 
puta  scheleti,  suis,  asini,  Angeli^  avis, 
modo  in  forma  unius,  modo  alterius  ex 
suis  Religiosis,  et  semel  _  in  forma  sui 
Prcelati,  nempe  Prioris,  qui  hortatus  est 

Demoniality  145 

72.  Here  is  the  other  story.  In  the  great 
Carthusian  Friary  of  Pavia  there  lived  a 
Deacon,  Austin  by  name,  who  was  subject- 
ed by  a  certain  Demon  to  excessive,  un- 
heard of  and  scarcely  credible  vexations ; 
although  many  exorcists  had  made  repeat- 
ed endeavours  to  secure  his  riddance,  all 
spiritual  remedies  had  proved  unavailing. 
I  was  consulted  by  the  Vicar  of  the  convent, 
who  had  the  cure  of  the  poor  clerk.  Seeing 
the  inefficacy  of  all  customary  exorcisms, 
and    remembering    the  above-related  in- 
stance, I  advised  a  fumigation  like  unto  the 
one  that  has  been  detailed,  and  prescribed 
that  the  Deacon  should  carry   about   his 
person  fragrant  pills  of  the  same  kind  ; 
moreover,  as  he  was  in  the  habit  of  using 
tobacco,  and  was  very  fond  of  brandy,  I 
advised  tobacco  and  brandy  perfumed  with 
musk.  The  Demon  appeared  to  him  by  day 
and  by  night,  under  various  shapes,  as  a 
skeleton,  a  pig,  an  ass,  an  Angel,  a  bird; 
with   the    figure  of  one  or  other  of  the 
Friars,    once   even  with   that  of  his  own 
Abbot  or  Prior,  exhorting  him  to  keep  his 
conscience  clean,  to  trust  in  God,  to  con- 
fess frequently ;  he  persuaded  him  to  let 
him  hear  his  sacramental  confession,  reci- 
ted with  him   the  psalms  Exsurgat  Deus 
and  Qui  habitat^  and  the  Gospel  according 


146  Daemonialitas 

vexatum  ad  puritatem  conscientice ,  ad  con- 
jidentiam     in  Deum,   et   ad  frequentiam 
confessionis ;  suasit  ut  sibi  sacramentalem 
confessionem  faceret,  quod  etiam  fecit ;  et 
expost  Psalmos  Exsurgat  Deus  et  Qui  ha- 
bitat, et  mox  Evangelium  S.  Joannis  si- 
miil  cum   vexato  recitavit^  et  ad  ea  verba 
Verbum    caro   factum    est   genujlexit,   et 
accepta  stola,  quce  in  cella  erat,  et  asper- 
gillo  aquce  benedictce  benedixit    cell(^,  ac 
lecto  vexati,  et  ac  si  rev  era  fuisset  ipsius 
Prior  prcoceptum  fecit  Dcemoni,  neauderet 
ilium   suum  subditum  amplius  divexare , 
et  post  hcec  disparuit,  sicque  prodidit  quis- 
nam   esset  :  aliter    vexatus    ilium   suum 
Prcelatum  esse  reputaverat.  Postquam  igi- 
tur  suffmentum,  ac  odores,  ut  supra  dic- 
tum est,  consulueramj  non  destitit  Dcemon 
juxta  solitum  apparere  ;  imo  assumptafi- 
gura  vexati  fuit  ad  cameram  Vicarii,  et 
ab   eo  petiit    aquam    vitce,   ac   tabaccum 
moschatum,  dicens  sibi  talia  valde  placere. 
Vicarius  utriimque  illi  dedit  :  quibus  accep- 
tis  disparuit  in  momenta,  quo  facto  cogno- 
vit Vicarius  se  fuisse  illusum  a  Dcemone 
tali  pacto  :  quod  magis  confrmavit  asser- 
tum  vexati,  qui  cum  juramento  affirrnavit, 
se  ilia  die  nullo  modo  fuisse  in  cella  Vica^ 
rii.  Iste  mi  hi  totum  retulit,  et  ex  tali  facto 
conjeci  Dcemonem  ilium  non  fuisse  aqueum, 

Demoniality  147 

to  St  John :  and  when  they  came  to  the 
words  Verbum  caro  factum  est,  he  bent  his 
knee,    and  taking  hold  of  a  stole  which 
was  in  the  cell,  and  of  the   Holy-water 
sprinkle,  he  blessed  the  cell  and  the  bed," 
and,  as  if  he  had  really  been  the  Prior,  en- 
joined on  the  Demon  not  to  venture  in 
future  to  molest  his  subordinate  ;  he  then 
disappeared,  thus  betraying  what  he  was, 
for  otherwise  the  young  deacon  had  taken 
him  for  his  Prior.  Now,  notwithstanding 
the  fumigations  and  perfumes  I  had  pre- 
scribed, the  Demon  did  not  desist  from  his 
wonted  apparitions ;  more  than  that,   as- 
suming the  features  of  his  victim,  he  went 
to  the  Vicar's  room,  and  asked  for  some  to- 
bacco and  brandy  perfumed  with  musk,  of 
which,    said  he,  he  was  extremely  fond. 
Having  received  both,  he  disappeared  in 
the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  thus  showing  the 
Vicar  that  he  had  been  played  with  by  the 
Demon ;  and  this  was  amply  confirmed  by 
the  Deacon,  who  affirmed  upon  his  oath 
that  he  had  not  gone  that  day  to  the  Vicar's 
cell.  All  that  having  been  related  to  me,  I 
inferred  that,  far  from  being  aqueous  like 
the  Incubus  who  was  in  love  with  the  maid- 
en  above    spoken   of,    this   Demon    was 
igneous,  or,  at  the  very  least,  aerial,  since 
he  delighted   in  hot  substances   such  as 

148  Daemonialitas 

ut  erat  Incubus,  qui  virginem  ad  coitum 
sollicitabat ,  ut  dictum  supra  est,  sed 
igneujn,  vel  ad  minus  aereum,  ex  quo  gau- 
debat  vaporibus,  ac  odoribus,  tabacco,  et 
aqua  vitce,  quce  calida  sunt.  Et  conjecturce 
vim  addidit  temperamentum  divexati,  quod 
erat  colericum  quo  ad  prcedominium  cum 
subdominio,  tamen  sanguineo.  Dccmones 
enim  tales  non  accedunt  nisi  ad  eos,  qui 
secum  in  temperamento  symbolii^ant ;  ex 
quo  validatur  opinio  mea  de  illorum  cor- 
poreitate.  Unde  suasi  Vicario,  ut  acciperet 
herbas  natura  frigidas^  ut  nymphceam^ 
hepaticam,  portulacam ,  mandragoram, 
sempervivam^  plantaginem ,  hyoscyamum, 
et  alias  similes^  et  ex  iis  compositum  fas- 
ciculum  fenestras  i  alium  ostio  cellar  sus- 
penderet ;  similibusque  herbis,  turn  came- 
ram,  tum  lectum  divexati  sterneret.  Mi- 
rum  dictu!  ^comparuit  denuo  Dcemon,  ma- 
nens  tamen  extra  cameram^  nee  ingredi 
voluitf  et  cum  divexatus  ilium  interrogas- 
set,  quare  de  more  intrare  non  auderet^ 
multis  verbis  injur iosis  jactatis  contra  me, 
qui  talia  consulueram,  disparuit,  nee  am- 
plius  reversus  est. 

73.  Ex  his  duabus  historiis  apparet  ta- 
les odores,  et  herbas  respective  sua  natu- 
rali  virtute,  nullaque  interveniente  vi  su- 

Demoniality  149 

va20urs^_perfumes,  tobacco  and  brandy. 
Force  was  added  to  my  surmises  by  the 
temperament  of  the  young  deacon,  which 
was  choleric  and  sanguine,  choler  predo- 
minating however;  for,  those  Demons 
never  approach  but  those  whose  tempera- 
ment tallies  with  their  own  :  another  con- 
firmation of  my  sentiment  regarding  their 
corporeity.  I  therefore  advised  the  Vicar 
to  let  his  penitent  take  herbs  that  are  cold 
by  nature,  such  as  water-lily,  liver-wort, 
spurge,  mandrake,  house-leek,  plantain, 
henbane,  and  others  similar,  make  two 
little  bundles  of  them  and  hang  them  up, 
one  at  his  window,  the  other  at  the  door 
of  his  cell,  taking  care  to  strow  some  also 
on  the  floor  and  on  the  bed.  Marvellous 
to  say !  The  Demon  appeared  again,  but 
remained  outside  the  room,  which  he 
would  not  enter;  and,  on  the  Deacon  in- 
quiring of  him  his  motives  for  such  unwont- 
ed reseryt,  he  burst  out  into  invectives 
against  me  for  giving  such  advice,  disap- 
peared, and  never  came  again. 

73.  The  two  stories  I  have  related  make 
it  clear  that,  by  their  native  virtue  alone, 
perfumes  and  herbs  drove  away  Demons 


1 5o  Daemonialitas 

pernaturali  Dcemones  propulisse;  unde 
convincitur  quod  Inciibi  patiuntiir  a  quali- 
tatibus  materialibus,  ut  proinde  concludi 
debeat,  quod  communicant  in  materia  cum 
iis  rebus  naturalibus,  a  quibus  fugantur, 
et  ex  consequenti  corpore  sint  prcediti, 
quod  est  intentum. 

74.  Et  magis  conclusio  firmatur,  si 
impugnetur  sententia  Doctorum  supraci- 
tatorum,  dicentium,  Inciibum  abactum  a 
Sara  fuisse  vi  Angeli  Raphaelis,  non  vero 
jecoris piscis  callionymi,  qualis  fuit piscis  a 
Tobia  apprehensus  ad  ripam  Tigris,  ut  cum 
Vallesio,  Sacr.  Philos.,  c.  42.,  scribit  Cor^ 
neliusa  Lap.  in  Tob.  c.  6.  v.  2.,  §  Quarto 
ergo  :  salva  enim  tantorum  Doctorum 
reverentia,  talis  expositio  manifeste  ad- 
versatur  sensui  patenti  Textus,  a  quo  nulla 
modo  recedendum  est  dummo^^o  non  se- 
quantur  absurda.  En  verba  Angeli  ad 
Tobiam  :  «  Cordis  ejus  particulam,  si 
»  super  carbones  ponas,  fumus  ejus  extri- 
»  cat  omne  genus  Daemoniorum ,  sive  a 
»  viro,  sive  a  muliere,  ita  ut  ultra  non  ac- 
»  cedant  ad  eos,  et  fel  valet  ad  unguendos 
»  oculos,  in  quibus  fuerit  albugo,  et  sana- 
»  buntur.  »  (Tob.,  c.  6.  v.  8.  et  9.)  No^ 
tetur,  quceso,  assertio   Angeli  absoluta,  et 

Demoniality  1 5 1 

without  the  intervention  of  any  supernat- 
ural force;  Incubi  are  therefore  subject  to_^ 
material  conditions,  and  itlnust  be  inferred 
that  they  participate  of  the  matter  of  the 
natural  objects  which  have  the  power  of 
putting  them  to  flight,  and  consequently 
they  have  a  body ;  that  is  what  was  to  be 

74.  But,  the  better  to  establish  our  con- 
clusion, it  behoves  to  impugn  the  mistake 
into  which  have  fallen  the  Doctors  above- 
quoted,  such  as  Vallesius  and  Cornelius  a 
Lapide,  when  they  say  that  Sarah  was  rid 
from  the  Incubus  by  the  virtue  of  the  Angel 
Raphael,  and  not  by  that  of  the  calliony- 
mous  fish  caught  by  Tobit  on  the  banks  of 
the  Tigris.  Indeed,  saving  the  reverence 
due  to  such  great  doctors,  such  a  construc- 
tion manifestly  clashes  with  the  clear  mea- 
ning of  the  Text,  from  which  it  is  never 
justifiable  to  deviafe,  so  long  as  it  does 
not  lead  to  absurd  consequences.  Here  are 
the  words  spoken  by  the  Angel  to  Tobias  : 
«  If  thou  puttest  on  coals  a  particle  of 
its  heart,  the  smoke  thereof  will  expel 
all  kinds' of  Demons,  whether  from  man  or 
woman ,  so  that  they  shall  never  return , 
and  its^^all  is  good  for  anointing  eyes.-, 
that  have  whiteness,  and  healing  them.  » 

1 52  Daemonialitas 

universalis  de  virtute  cordis^  seu  jecoris,  et 
fellis  illius  piscis  :  non  enim  dicit :  Si  pones 
particulas  cordis  ejus  super  carbones,  fu- 
gabis  omne  genus  Dasmoniorum,  et  si  felle 
unges  oculos,  in  quibus  fuerit  albugo, 
sanabuntur  :  si  enim  ita  dixisset,  congrua 
esset  exposition  quod  nempe  Raphael  su- 
pernaturali  sua  virtute  illos  effectus  pa- 
trasset,  ad  quos  perjiciendos  inepta  esset 
applicatio  fumi ,  et  fellis  :  sed  non  ita 
loquitur,  sed  ait  talem  esse  virtutem  fumi, 
et  fellis  absolute. 

75.  Qiicero  modo,  an  Angelus  veritatem 
puram  dixerit  de  virtute  rerum,  an  men- 
tiri  potuerit ;  pariter  an  albugo  ab  oculis 
Tobice  senioris  ablata  sit  vi  naturali  fellis 
piscis^  aut  virtute  supernaturali  Angeli 
Raphaelis?  Angelum  mentiri  potuisse  bla- 
sphemia  hcereticalis  est;  sequitur  igitur 
puram  veritatem  fuisse  ab  eo  assertam; 
talis  autem  non  esset,  si  omne  genus  Dee- 
moniorum  non  extricaretur  a  fumo  jecoris 
piscis  nisi  addita  vi  supernaturali  Angeli, 
maxime,  si  hcec  esset  causa  principalis  ta- 

Demoniality  1 5  3 

(Tobit,  c.  6,  V.  8  and  9).  Pray  notice  that 
the  Angel's  assertion  respecting  the  virtue 
of  the  heart  or  liver  and  gall  of  that  fish 
is  absolute,  universal ;  for,  he  does  not  say : 
«  If  thou  puttest  on  coals  particles  of  its 
heart,  thou  wilt  put  to  flight  all  kinds  of 
Demons,  and  if  thou  anointest  with  its  gall 
eyes  that  have  a  whiteness,  they  shall  be  heal- 
ed. »  If  he  had  thus  spoken ,  I  could  agree 
with  the  construction  that  Raphael  had 
brought  about,  by  his  own  supernatural 
virtue,  the  effects  which  the  mere  applica- 
tion of  the  smoke  and  the  gall  might  not 
have  sufficed  to  produce  :  but  he  does  not 
speak  thus,  and,  on  the  contrary,  says 
absolutely,  that  such  is  the  virtue  of  the 
smoke  and  the  gall. 

75.  It  may  be  asked  whether  the  Angel 
spoke  the  precise  truth  regarding  the  virtue 
of  those  things,  or  whether  he  might  have 
lied ;  and  likewise,  whether  the  whiteness 
was  withdrawn  from  the  eyes  of  the  elder 
Tobit  by  the  native  force  of  the  gall  of  the 
fish,  or  by  the  supernatural  virtue  of  the 
Angel  Raphael?  To  say  that  the  Angel 
could  have  lied  would  be  an  heretical  bla- 
sphemy; he  therefore  spoke  the  precise 
truth ;  but  it  would  no  longer  be  so  if  all 
kinds  of  Demons  were  not  expelled  by  the 

1 54  Daemonialitas 

lis  effectus,  quemadmodum  scribunt  de  hoc 
casu  Doctores.  Mentiretur  absque  dubio 
mediciis  qui  diceret  :  talis  herba  curat  ta- 
liter  pleuritidem,  sive  epilepsiam,  ut  am- 
plius  non  revertalur  :  si  herba  ilia  non 
curaret  illas  cegritudines  nisi  inchoate,  et 
perfecta  illarum  sanatio  esset  ab  alia  herba 
conjuncta  priori ;  sic  pari  modo  mentitus 
fuisset  Raphael,  asserens  fumum  jecoris 
extricare  omne  genus  Dcemoniorum  ita  ut 
ultra  non  accedant,  si  talis  effectus  esset 
a  fumo  solum  inchoate,  principaliter  vero, 
et  perfecte  a  virtute  Angeli.  Prceterea  talis 
fuga  Doemonis,  vel  secutura  erat  universa- 
liter,  et  semper  posito  jecore  piscis  super 
carbones  a  quoquam,  vel  debebat  sequi  in 
illo  solummodo  casu  particulari,  jecore 
incusso  ajuniore  Tobia.  Si  primum,  ergo 
oportet,  quod  cuicumque  talem  fumum  per 
accensionem  jecoris  paranti,  assistat  An- 
gelus  qui  supernaturali  virtute  Dcemo- 
nem  miraculose  abigat  regular  iter;  et  hoc 
est  absurdum;  ad  positionem  enim  rei  na- 
turalis  deberet  regular  iter  sequi  miracu- 
lum,  quod  est  incongruum,  et  si  absque 
Angeli  operatione  fuga  Dcemonis  non  se- 
queretur,  mentitus  fuisset  Raphael  asse- 
rens earn  esse  virtutem  jecoris.  Si  autem 
effectus  ille  sequi  non  debeat,  nisi  in  illo 
casu  particulari,  mentitus  fuisset  Angelus 

Demoniality  i55 

smoke  of  the  liver  of  the  fish,  unless  aided 
by  the  supernatural  force  of  the  Angel, 
and  especially,  if  such  aid  was  the  principal 
cause  of  the  effect  produced,  as  the  Doc- 
tors assert  in  the  present  case.  It  would 
doubtless  be  a  lie  if  a  physician  should 
say  :  such  an  herb  radically  cures  pleurisy 
or  epilepsy,  and  if  it  should  only  begin  the 
cure,  the  completion  of  which  required  the 
addition  of  another  herb  to  the  one  first 
used;  in  the  same  manner,  Raphael  would 
have  lied  when  averring  that  the  smoke  of 
the  liver  expelled  all  kinds  of  demons,  so 
that  they  should  not  return,  if  that  result 
had  been  only  begun  by  the  smoke,  audits 
completion  had  been  principally  due  to  the 
virtue  of  the  Angel.  Besides,  that  flight  of 
the  demon  was  either  to  take  place  univer- 
sally and  by  any  one  whomsoever  putting 
the  liver  of  the  fish  on  the  coals,  or  else  it 
was  only  to  occur  in  that  particular  case, 
the  younger  Tobit  putting  the  liver  on.  In 
the  first  hypothesis  ,  any  person  making 
that  smoke  by  burning  the  liver  should  be 
assisted  by  an  Angel,  who,  through  his 
supernatural  virtue  should  expel  the  De- 
mons miraculously  and  regularly  at  the 
same  time;  which  is  absurd;  for,  either 
words  have  no  meaning,  or  a  natural  fact 
cannot  be  regularly  followed  by  a  miracle; 

1 56  Daemonialitas 

enuncians  universaliter  virtutem  piscis,  in 
f Uganda  omni  Dt^moniorum  genere,  quod 
non  est  dicendum. 

76.  Ulterius  albugo  oculorum  detracta  est 
ab  oculis  Tobice  senioris,  et  ipsius  ccecitas 
sanata  est  a  virtute  naturali  fellis  piscis 
illius,  ut  Doctores  affirmant  {Liran.  Dyoni- 
sius ;  et  Seraci.  apud  Cornel.  inTobi.,  c.  6. 
V.  9).  Piscis  enim  Callionymiis,  qui  vocatur 
Italice  bocca  in  capo,  et  quo  usus  est  To- 
bias, fel  habet  pro  celeberrimo  remedio  ad 
detegendas  albugines  oculorum,  ut  scribunt 
concorditer  Dioscorides,  I.  i.  c.  96.,  Gale- 
nus,  De  Simpl.  Medicam.,  Plinius,  I.  32.  c. 
7.,  Aclanius,  De  Ver.  Histor,,  /.  i3.  c.  14., 
et  Vallesius,  De  Sacr.  Philos.,  c.  47.  TeX' 
ius  Gra'cus  Tobiae,  c.  11.  v.  i3.,  habet: 
«  Inspersit  fel  super  oculos  patris  sui,  di- 
»  cens  :  Confide,  Pater ;  ut  autem  erosi 
»  sunt,  detrivit  oculos  suos,  et  disquamatas 
»  sunt  ab  angulis  oculorum  albugines.  » 
Cum  igitur  eodem  contextu  Angelus  ape- 

Demoniality  iSy 

and,  if  the  Demon  was  not  put  to  flight 
without  the  assistance  of  the  Angel,  Ra- 
phael would  have  lied  when  ascribing  that 
virtue  to  the  liver.  If,  on  the  contrary,  that 
effect  was  only  to  be  brought  about  in  that 
particular  case,  Raphael  would  again  have 
lied  when  assigning  to  that  fish,  universally 
and  absolutely,  the  virtue  of  expelling  the 
Demon  :  now,  to  say  that  the  Angel  lied  is 
not  possible. 

76.  The  whiteness  was  withdrawn  from 
the  eyes  of  the  elder  Tobit,  and  his  blind- 
ness healed,  through  the  native  virtue  of 
the  gall  of  that  same  fish,  as  Doctors  aver. 
In  fact,  that  the  gall  of  the  callionymous 
fish,  which  the  Italians  call  bocca  in  capo^ 
and  of  which  Tobias  made  use,  is  a  highly 
renowned  remedy  for  removing  the  white- 
ness from  the  eyes,  all  are  agreed,  Dios- 
corides,  Galen,  Pliny,  Aclanius,  Vallesius, 
etc.  The  Greek  Text  of  Tobit,  c.  1 1,  v.  i3, 
says  :  «  He  poured  the  gall  on  his  father 's 
eyes^  saying  :  Have  confidence,  father; 
but,  there  being  erosion,  the  old  man  rubbed 
his  eyes,  and  the  scales  of  the  whiteness  came 
out  at  the  corners.  »  Now,  since,  according 
to  the  same  text,  the  Angel  had  disclosed 
to  Tobias  the  virtue  of  the  liver  and  gall 
of  the  fish,  and  since,  through  its  native  vir- 

1 58  Daemonialitas 

ruerit  Tobias  virtutemjecoris,  et  fellis  pis- 
CIS,  et  hoc  sua  naturali  virtute  ccrcitatem 
TobicB  senioris  curaverit,  concludendum  est, 
quod  etiam  fumus  jecoris  sua  naturali  vi 
Incubum  fugaverit :  quod  concludenter  con- 
firmatur  a  Textu  Gra^co,  qui  ad  Tobise  c. 
8.  V.  2.,  ubi  Vulgata  habet  :  «  Partem  je- 
»  coris  posuit  super  carbones  vivos  »,  sic 
habet  :  «  Accepit  cinerem,  sive  prunam 
»  thimiamatum,  et  imposuit  cor  piscis,  et 
»  hepar,  fumumque  fecit,  et  quando  odo- 
»  ratus  est  Daemon  odores,  fugit.  »  Et 
Textus  Hebraicus  ita  cantat :  «  Percepit 
»  Asmodeus  odorem,  et  fugit.  y>  Ex  quibus 
textibus  apparet^  quod  D  a^mon  fugit  ad  per- 
ceptionem  fumi,  sibi  contrarii,  ac  nocentis, 
non  autem  a  virtute  Angeli  supernaturali. 
Quod  si  in  -tali  liberatione  Sarce  ab  impeti- 
tione  Incubi  Asmodei,  ultra fumum  jecoris 
intervenit  operatio  Raphaelisj  hoc  fuit  in 
alligatione  Dcemonis  in  deserto  superior  is 
yEgjrpti,  ut  dicitur  c.  8.  v.  3.  Tobiae ;  fu- 
mus quippe  jecoris  nequibat  in  tanta  di~ 
stantia  agere  in  Dcemonem,  aut  ilium  alli- 
gare.  Qiiod  inservire  potest  pro  concordia 
supracitatorum  Doctorum  [qui  voluerunt 
Saram  perfecte  liberatam  a  Dcemone  vir- 
tute Raphaelis)  cum  sententia^  quam  tue- 
mur  :  dico  enim,  quod  ipsi  senserint  quod 
perfecta  curatio  Sarce  a  Dcemone  fuerit  in 

Demoniality  i  Sg 

tue,  the  gall  cured  the  elder  Tobit  's  blind- 
ness, it  must  be  inferred  that  it  was  likewise 
through  its  native  force  that  the  smoke  of 
the  liver  put  the  Incubus  to  flight ;  which 
inference  is  conclusively  confirmed  by  the 
Greek  text,  which,  Tobit,  c  8,  v.  2,  instead 
of  the  reading  in  the  Vulgate  :  «  He  laid  a 
part  of  the  liver  on  burning  coals  »,  says 
explicitly  :  «  He  took  the  ashes  of  the  per- 
fumes, and  put  the  heart  and  the  liver  of  the 
fish  thereupon,  and  made  a  smoke  therewith; 
the  which  smell  when  the  evil  spirit  had 
smelled,  he  fled.  »  The  Hebrew  text  says  : 
«  Asmodeus  smelled  the  smell.,  and  fled.  » 
From  all  those  texts  it  appears  that  the 
Demon  took  to  flight  on  smelling  a  smoke 
which  was  prejudicial  and  hurtful  to  him- 
self, and  nowise  from  the  supernatural 
virtue  of  the  Angel.  If,  in , ridding  Sarah 
from  the  assaults  of  the  Incubus  Asmodeus, 
the  operation  of  the  smoke  of  the  liver  was 
followed  by  the  intervention  of  Raphael,  it 
was  in  order  to  bind  the  Demon  in  the 
wilderness  of  High-Egypt,  as  related,  To- 
bit.,  c.  8,  V.  3  ;  for,  at  such  a  distance,  the 
smoke  of  the  liver  could  neither  operate  on 
the  Demon,  nor  bind  him.  And  here  we 
have  the  means  of  reconciling  our  opinion 
with  that  of  the  above-mentioned  Doctors, 
who  ascribe  to  Raphael's  power    Sarah's 

i6o  Daemonialitas 

alligatione  ejus  in  deserto,  qucefuit  ab  An- 
gelo,  quod  et  nos  concedimus ;  sed  extrica- 
tio,  sive  fugatio  ejusdem  a  cubiculo  Sarce 
fuerit  a  vi  innativajecoris  piscis,  quod  nos 

77.  Probatur  tertio  principaliter  nostra 
conclusio  de  existentia  talium  animalium, 
seu  de  Incuborum  corporeitate,  ex  auctori- 
tate  D.  Hieronymi,  in  vita  S.  Pauli  primi 
Eremitas.  Re/ert  is  D.  Antonium  iter  per 
desertum  arripuisse,  ut  ad  visendum  D. 
Paulum  perveniret,  et  post  nonnullas  dice- 
tas  itineris  Centaurum  reperiisse,  a  quo 
cumfuissetpercontatus  mensionem  D.  Pauli, 
et  ille  barbarum  quid  infrendens  potius, 
quam proloquens,  dextrce protensione  manus 
iter  D.  Antonio  demonstrasset,  in  sylvam 
se  abdidit  cursu  concitatissimo.  Prosecutus 
iter  S.  Abbas  in  quadam  valle  invenit  haud 
grandem  quemdam  homunculum,  aduncis 
manibus,  fronte  cornibus  asperata,  cujus 
extrema  pars  corporis  in  caprarum  pedes 
desinebat.  Ad  ejus  aspectum  substitit  Anto- 
nius,  et  timens  Diaboli  artes  signo  Sanctce 
Crucis  se  munivit.  Ad  tale  signum  nec/ugit. 

Demoniality  1 6 1 

complete  riddance  from  the  Demon  :  for, 
I  say  with  them,  that  the  cure  of  Sarah  was 
completed  by  the  binding  of  the  Demon  in 
the  wilderness,  the  deed  of  the  Angel ; 
which  I  concede ;  but  I  maintain  that  the 
deliverance  properly  called,  that  is  to  say, 
the  ejection  from  Sarah's  bed-room,  was 
the  direct  effect  of  the  virtue  of  the  liver 
of  the  fish. 

77.  A  third  principal  proof  of  our  con. 
elusion  regarding  the  existence  of  those 
animals,  in  other  words,  respecting  the 
corporeity  of  Incubi,  is  adduced  by  the 
testimony  of  St  Hieronymus,  in  his  Life 
of  St  Paul,  the  first  Hermit.  St  Anthony, 
says  he,  set  on  a  journey  to  visit  St  Paul. 
After  travelling  several  days,  he  met  a 
Centaur,  of  whom  he  inquired  the  hermit's 
abode ;  whereupon  the  Centaur,  growling 
some  uncouth  and  scarcely  intelligible 
answer,  shew  the  way  with  his  out-stretched 
hand,  and  fled  with  the  utmost  speed  into 
a  wood.  The  Holy  Abbot  kept  on  his  way, 
and,  in  a  dale,  met  a  little  man,  almost  a 
dwarf,  with  crooked  hands,  horned  brow, 
and  his  lower  extremities  ending  with 
goat's  feet.  At  the  sight  of  him,  St  Anthony 
stood  still,  and  fearing  the  arts  of  the  De- 
vil, comforted  himself  with  a  sign  of  the 


1 62  Daemonialitas 

nee  metuit  homuncio  ille,  immo  ad  sanctum 
senem  actu  humili  appropinquans,  palma- 
rumfructus  ad  viaticum  quasi  pads  obsides 
illi  offerebat.  Turn  B.  Antonius  quisnam 
esset  interrogans,  hoc  ab  eo  responsum  ac- 
cepit  :  «  Mortalis  ego  sum,  et  unus  ex  ac- 
»  colis  Eremi,  quos  vario  errore  delusa 
»  Gentilitas  Faunos,  Satyros,  et  Incubos 
»  vocans  colit  ;  legatione  fungor  gregis 
»  mei;  precamur,  ut  pro  nobis  communem 
»  Deum  depreceris,  quern  pro  salute  mundi 
»  venisse  cognovimuSjetuniversam  terram 
»  exiit  sonus  ejus.  »  Ad  quce  gaudens  D. 
Antonius  de  gloria  Christi,  conversus  ad 
Alexandriam,  et  baculo  terram  percutiens, 
ait  :  «  Veh  tibi,  Civitas  meretrix,  quae  pro 
»  diis  animalia  veneraris  !  »  Ha^c  D.  Hie- 
ronymus,  qui  late  prosequitur  hoc  factum, 
ipsius  virtutem  longo  comprobans  sermone. 

78.  De  hujus  historice  veritate  dubitare 
temerarium  est,  cum  earn  constanter  refer  at 
SS.  Ecclesice  Doctorum  maximus  D.  Hie- 
ronymus^  de  cujus  auctoritate  nullus  Catho- 
licus  dubitabit.  Addit  fol.  21.  25.  Notandce 
proinde  veniunt  illius  circumstantice,  quce 

Demoniality  i63 

Cross.  But,  far  from  running  away,  or  even 
seeming  frightened  at  it,  the  little  fellow 
respectfully  approached  the  old  man,  and 
tendered  him,  as  a  peace  offering,  dates 
for  his  journey.  The  blessed  St  Anthony 
having  then  inquired  who  he  was  :  «  1  am 
a  mortal,  »  replied  he, «  and  one  of  the  inha- 
bitants of  the  Wilderness,  whom  Gentility^ 
under  its  varied  delusions,  worships  under 
the  names  of  Fauns^  Satyrs  and  Incubi ;  I 
am  on  a  mission  from  my  flock :  we  request 
thee  to  pray  for  us  unto  the  common  God, 
whom  we  know  to  have  come  for  the  salva- 
tion of  the  world,  and  whose  praises  are 
sounded  all  over  the  earth.  »  Rejoicing  at 
the  glory  of  Christ,  St  Anthony,  turning  his 
face  towards  Alexandria,  and  striking  the 
ground  with  his  staff,  cried  out :  »  Woe  be 
unto  thee^  thou  harlot  City,  who  worshipest 
animals  as  Gods  !  »  Such  is  the  narrative 
of  St  Hieronymus,  who  expatiates  at  length 
on  the  fact,  explaining  its  import  in  along 

78.  It  were  indeed  rash  to  doubt  the 
truth  of  the  above  recital,  constantly  re- 
ferred to  by  the  greatest  of  the  Doctors  of 
the  Holy  Church,  St  Hieronymus,  whose 
authority  no  Catholic  will  ever  deny.  Let 
us  therefore  investigate  the  circumstances 

164  Daemonialitas 

sententiatn  nostram  evidentissime  confir- 

79.  Primo  notandum  est,  quod  si  ullus 
Sanctorum  artibus  Dcemonis  impetitusfuit ; 
si  ullus  diversas  ejus  artes  nocendi  calluit  ; 
si  ullus  victorias,  ac  illustria  de  eodem  tro 
phea  reportavit,  is  fuit  D.  Antonius^  ut 
constat  ex  ejus  vita  a  D.  Athanasio  de- 
scripta.  Dum  igitur  D.  Antonius  homuncu- 
lum  ilium  non  tanquam  Diaholum  agnovit, 
sed  animal  intitulavit,  dicens  :  Veh  tibi, 
Civitas  meretrix,  quae  pro  Diis  animalia 
veneraris !  convincitur,  quod  ille  nullo  modo 
fuit  Diabolus,  seu  purus  spiritus  de  coelo 
dejectus,  ac  damnatus,  sed aliquodaliud  ani- 
mal. Et  conjirmatur^  quia  D.  Antonius  eru- 
diens  suos  monachos,  eosque  animans  ad 
metuendas  Dcemonis  violentias,  aiebat,prout 
habetur  in  lectionibus  Breviarii  Romani  in 
festo  S.  Antonii  Abb.  /.  i.,  quce  recitantur 
in  festo  ipsius  :  «  Mihi  credite,  Fratres, 
»  pertimescit  Saianas  piorum  vigilias,  ora- 
»  tiones,  jejunia,voluntariampaupertatem, 
»  misericordiam,  et  humilitatem ;  maxime 
»  vero  ardentem  amorem  in  Christum 
»  Dominum,  cujusunico  Sanctissim^Cru- 
»  CIS  signo  debilitatus  fugit.  »  Dum  igitur 
homunculus  ille,  contra  quem  D.  Antonius 
Crucis  signo  se  munivit,  ad  ejus  aspectum 

Demoniality  i65 

thereof  which   most  clearly  confirm  our 

79.  Firstly,  we  must  observe  that  if  ever 
a  Saint  was  assailed  by  the  arts  of  the  De- 
mon, saw  through  his  infernal  devices,  and 
carried  off  victories  and  trophies  from  the 
contest,  that  Saint  was  St  Anthony,  as  is 
shown  by  his  life  written  by  St  Aihana- 
sius.  Now,  since  in  that  little  man  St  An- 
thony did  not  recognize  a  devil  but  an 
animal,  saying  :  «  Woe  be  unto  thee^  thou 
harlot  City,  who  worshipest  animals  as 
Gods  !  »,  it  is  clear  that  it  was  no  devil  or 
pure  spirit  ejected  from  heaven  and  damned, 
but  some  kind  of  animal.  Still  more  :  St 
Anthony,  when  instructing  his  friars  and 
cautioning  them  against  the  assaults  of  the 
Demon,  said  to  them,  as  related  in  the 
Roman  Breviary  [Festival  of  St  Anthony^ 
Abbot ^  b.  I)  ;  «  Believe  me,  my  brethren, 
Satan  dreads  the  vigils  of  pious  men,  their 
prayers,  fasts,  voluntary  poverty,  compas- 
sion and  humility;  but,  above  all,  he  dreads 
their  burning  love  of  our  Lord  Christ,  at 
the  mere  sign  of  whose  most  Holy  Cross  he 
flies  disabled.  »  As  the  little  man,  against 
whom  St  Anthony  guarded  himself  with  a 
sign  of  the  Cross,  neither  took  fright  nor 
fled,  but  approached  the  Saint  confidently 

1 66  Daemonialitas 

nee  pavit,  necfugit,  immo  confidenter,  hu- 
mi liter  que  accessit  ad  eiim  dactalos  illi 
offerens,  signum  est,  ilium  nullo  modo  Dia- 
bolum  fuisse . 

80.  Secundo  notandum,  quod  homunculus 
ille  dixit :  Mortalis  et  ego  sum;  ex  quibus 
verbis  docemur,  quod  illeerat  animal  morti 
obnoxium,  et  proinde,  quod  per  generatio- 
nem  esse  accepit :  spiritus  enim  immateria- 
lis  immortalis  est,  quia  simplex,  et  idea 
non  accipit  esse  per  generationem  ex  prce- 
jacente  materia,  sed  per  creationem ;  iinde 
nee  amittit  esse  per  corruptionem,  qua^  dici- 
tur  mors,  sed  per  annihilationem  tantum 
potest  desinere  esse.  Quod  si  ille  se  morta- 
lem  esse  dixit,  professus  est  se  esse  animal. 

81.  Tertio  notandum,  quod  ait  se  cogno- 
visse  communem  Deum  in  came  humana 
fuisse  passum.  Ex  his  verbis  convincitur 
illud  fuisse  animal  rationale  :  siquidem 
bruta  nihil  agnoscunt,  nisi  sensibile  etpra^- 
sens,  unde  ab  ipsis  Deus  nullo  modo  co- 
gnosci  potest.  Qiiod  si  homunculus  ille  ait, 
se  cum  aliis  suis  cognovisse  Deum  in  came 
humana  passum,  hoc  probat,  quod  aliquo 
revelante  habuit  notitiam  de  Deo,  sicut  etiam 

Demonialitjr  1 67 

and  humbly,  offering  him  some  dates,  it  is 
a  sure  sign  that  he  was  no  Devil. 

80.  Secondly,  we  must  observe  that  the 
little  man  said  :  «  /  also  am  a  mortal  », 
whence  it  follows  that  he  was  an  animal 
subject  to  death,  and  consequently  called 
into  being  through  generation ;  for,  an 
immaterial  spirit  is  immortal,  because  sim- 
ple, and  consequently  is  not  called  into 
being  through  generation  from  preexistent 
matter,  but  through  creation,  and,  conse- 
quently also,  cannot  lose  it  through  the 
corruption  called  death ;  its  existence  can 
only  come  to  an  end  through  annihilation. 
Therefore,  when  saying  he  was  mortal,  he 
professed  himself  an  animal. 

81.  Thirdly,  we  must  observe  that  he 
said  he  knew  that  the  common  God  had 
suffered  in  human  flesh.  Those  words  show 
him  to  have  been  a  rational  animal,  for 
brutes  know  nothing  but  what  is  sensible 
and  present,  and  can  therefore  have  no 
knowledge  of  God.  If  that  little  man  said 
that  he  and  his  fellows  were  aware  of  God 
having  suffered  in  human  flesh,  it  shows 
that,  by  means  of  some  revelation,  he  had 

1 68  Daemonialitas 

nos  habemus  de  illofidem  revelatam ;  pari- 
ter  que  Deum  carnem  humanam  assump^ 
sissCj  et  in  ea  passum  :  quce  duo  sunt  arti- 
culi  nostrce  Fidei  principals,  nempe  Dei 
unius,  et  trini  existentia,  et  ipsius  Incar- 
natio,  Passio,  et  Resurrect io ,-  ex  quibus 
omnibus  habetur,  ut  dicebam,  illud  fuisse 
animal  rationale  capax  divince  cognitionis, 
per  revelationem,  ut  nos,  et  proinde  pollens 
anima  rationali,  et  ex  consequenti  immor- 

82.  Quarto  noiandum,  quod  oraverit  no- 
mine omnium  gregis  sui,  cujus  legatione 
fungi  se profitebatur,  D.  Antonium,  ut  com- 
munem  Deum  pro  illis  deprecaretur.  Ex 
his  deducitur,  quod  homunculus  ille  capax 
erat  beatitudinis,  et  damnationis,  etquod  non 
erat  in  termino,  sed  in  via  :  ex  hoc  enim, 
quod,  ut  supra  probatum  est,  se  prodidit 
rationalem,  et  anima  immortali  consequen- 
ter  donatum,  consequens  est,  quod  et  bea- 
titudinis, et  damnationis  capax  sit  :  hcec 
enim  propria  passio  est  Creaturce  rationa- 
lis,  ut  constat  ex  natura  angelica,  et  hu- 
mana.  Item  deducitur,  quod  ipse  erat  in 
via,  et  proinde  capax  meriti,  et  demeriti  : 
si  enim  fuisset  in  termino,  fuisset  vel  bea- 
tus,  vel  damnatus;  neutrum  autem  potuit 
esse,  quia  orationes  D.  Antonii,  quibus  se 

Demonialitjr  169 

acquired  the  notion  of  God,  as  we  have 
ourselves  the  revealed  faith.  That  God  as- 
sumed human  flesh  and  suffered  in  it,  is  the 
essence  of  the  two  principal  articles  of  our 
Faith  ;  the  existence  of  God  one  and  three- 
fold, His  Incarnation,  Passion  and  Resur- 
rection. All  that  shows,  as  I  said,  that  it 
was  a  rational  animal,  capable  of  the  know- 
ledge of  God  through  revelation,  like  our- 
selves, and  endowed  with  a  rational,  and 
consequently,  immortal  soul. 

82.  Fourthly,  we  must  observe  that,  in 
the  name  of  his  whole  flock  whose  dele- 
gate he  professed  to  be,  he  besought  St  An- 
thony to  pray  for  them  to  the  common 
God.  Wherefrom  I  infer  that  that  little  man 
was  capable  of  beatitude  and  damnation, 
and  that  he  was  not  in  termino  but  in  via  ; 
for,  from  his  being,  as  has  been  shown 
above,  rational  and  consequently  endowed 
with  an  immortal  soul,  it  flows  that  he  was 
capable  of  beatitude  and  damnation,  the 
proper  share  of  every  rational  Creature, 
Angel  or  man.  I  likewise  infer  that  he  was 
on  the  way,  in  via,  that  is,  capable  of 
merit  and  demerit ;  for,  if  he  had  been  at 
the  goal,  in  termino,  he  would  have  been 
either  blessed  or  damned.  Now,  he  could  be 
neither  the  one  nor  the  other ;  for,  St  An- 


1 70  Daemonialitas 

commendabat ,  ipsi  nullo  modo  prodesse 
potuissent,  si  fuisset  finaliter  damnatiis  ;  et 
si  beatus  fuisset,  illis  t7on  eguisset.  Quod 
ipsi  se  commendavit ,  signum  est  eas  sibi 
prodesse  potuisse,  et  proinde  ipsum  fuisse 
in  statu  vice,  et  meriti. 

83.  Qiiinto  notandum,  quod  homuncuhis 
ille  professus  est,  se  esse  legatum  aliorum 
suce  speciei,  dum  dixit  legatione  fungor 
gregis  mei,  ex  quibus  verbis  plura  dedu- 
cuntur.  Unum  est,  quod  homuncuhis  ille 
non  solus  erat,  iinde  potuisset  credi  mon- 
strum  raro  contingens,  sed  quod  plures 
erant  ejusdem  speciei  ;  turn  quiasimul  con- 
gregati  gregem  faciebant ;  turn  quia  no- 
mine omnium  veniebat  :  quod  esse  non  pos- 
set si  multorum  voluntates  in  ilium  non 
convenissent.  Aliud  est,  quod  isti  projiten- 
tur  vitam  socialem  :  ex  quo  nomine  mul- 
torum unus  ex  ipsis  missus  est.  Aliud  est, 
quod  quamvis  dicantur  habitare  in  Eremo, 
non  tamen  in  eo  fixa  est  eorum  permanen- 
tia  :  siquidem  cum  D.  Antonius  in  ilia 
eremo  alias  non  fuisset  {distabat  enim  ilia 
per  multas  dietas  ab  eremo  D.  Antonii), 
scire  non  potuerunt  quisnam  ille  esset  cu- 
jusve  sanctitatis;  necessarium   igitur  fuit, 

Demoniality  171 

thony's  prayers,  to  which  he  commended 
himself,  could  have  been  of  no  assistance 
to  him,  if  finally  damned,  and,  if  blessed, 
he  stood  in  no  need  of  them.  Since  he 
commended  himself  to  those  prayers,  it 
shows  they  could  be  of  avail  to  him,  and, 
consequently,  that  he  was  on  the  way  to 
salvation,  in  statu  vice  et  meriti. 

83.  Fifthly,  we  must  observe  that  the 
little  man  professed  to  be  delegated  by 
others  of  his  kind,  when  saying  :  «  1  am 
on  a  mission  from  my  flock  »,  words  from 
which  many  inferences  may  be  deduced. 
One  is,  that  the  little  man  was  not  alone 
of  his  kind,  an  exceptional  and  solitary 
monster,  but  that  there  were  many  of  the 
same  species,  since  congregating  they  made 
up  a  flock,  and  that  he  came  in  the  name  of 
all ;  which  could  not  have  been,  had  not  the 
will  of  many  centred  in  him.  Another  is, 
that  those  animals  lead  a  social  life,  since 
one  of  them  was  sent  in  the  name  of  many. 
Another  again  is ,  that ,  although  living 
in  the  Wilderness,  it  is  not  assigned  to 
them  as  a  permanent  abode ;  for  St  An- 
thony having  never  previously  been  in  that 
desert,  which  was  far  distant  from  his  her- 
mitage, they  could  not  have  known  who  he 
was  nor  what  his  degree  of  sanctity ;  it  was 

172  Daemonialitas 

quod  alibi  eum  cognoverint ,  et  ex  conse- 
quenti  extra   desertum   ilium  vagaverint. 

84.  Ultimo  notandum,  quod  homunculus 
ille  ait  esse  ex  iis,  quos  caeco  errore  de- 
lusa  Gentilitas  Faunos,  Satyros  et  Incubos 
appellant;  et  ex  his  verbis  convincitur  no- 
strum intentum  principale,  Incubos  nempe 
esse  animalia  rationalia  beatitatis,  et  dam- 
nationis  capacia. 

85.  Talium  homuncionum  frequens  est 
apparitio  in  metallorum  fodiniSy  ut  scribit 
Gregorius  Agricola,  lib.  De  Animal,  sub- 
terran..  prope  finem.  Isti  nempe  coram 
fossoribus^  minerarum  comparent  induti 
habitu,  qitalem  habent  fossores  ipsi,  et  jo- 
cantur  inter  se,  tripudiantque,  ac  rident  et 
cachinnantur,  parvosque  lap  ides  joco  mit- 
tunt  in  metallarios,  et  tunc  signum  est,  ait 
Auctor  prcedictus,  optimi  proventus,  ac  in- 
ventionis  alicujus  rami,  aut  trunci  princi- 
palis arboris  mineralis. 

86.  Tales  homunculos  subterraneos  ne- 
gat  Petrus  Thyrceus  Novesianus,  lib.  De 
Terrificatio.  Noctur.,  c.  2.,  per  totum, 
nixus  argumentis   sane    puerilibus,  quce 

Demoniality  17^ 

therefore  necessary  that  they  should  have 
become  acquainted  with  him  elsewhere, 
and,  consequently,  that  they  should  have 
travelled  beyond  that  wilderness. 

84.  Lastly,  we  must  observe  that  the 
little  man  said  he  was  one  of  those  whom 
the  Gentiles,  blinded  by  error,  call  Fauns, 
Satyrs  and  Incubi :  and  by  these  words  is 
shown  the  truth  of  our  principal  proposi- 
tion :  that  Incubi  are  rational  animals, 
capable  of  beatitude  and  damnation. 

85.  The  apparition  of  such  little  men  is 
of  frequent  occurrence  in  metallic  mines, 
as  is  written  by  Gregorius  Agricola  in  his 
book  De  Animal,  subterran.  They  appear 
to  the  miners,  clothed  like  themselves,  play 
and  caper  together,  laugh  and  titter,  and 
throw  little  stones  at  them  for  the  sake 
of  amusement  :  a  sign,  says  the  above-nam- 
ed Author,  of  excellent  success,  and  of 
the  finding  of  some  branch  or  body  of  a 
mineral  tree. 

86.  Peter  Thyraeus,  of  Neuss,  in  his  book 
De  Terrijication.  nocturn.^  denies  the  exist- 
ence of  such  little  men ,  and  supports  his 
denial  upon  the  following  truly  puerile  ar- 


174  Daemonialitas 

sunt  hcec  :  si  darentur  hujusmodi  homun- 
ciones,  ubinam  degiint,  et  qiicenam,  et  ubi 
habent  sua  domiciiiay  qua  ratione  genus 
suum  conservant,  si  per  generationem,  aut 
quomodo?  si  oriantur,  et  intereant,  quo 
cibo  vitam  suam  sustentent ;  si  beatitudi- 
nis,  et  damnationis  capaces  sint,  et  quibus 
mediis  propriam  salutem  consequantur? 
Hcec  sunt  argumenta  Thyrcei,  quibus  per- 
motus  negat  talem  existentiam. 

87.  Sed  viri  parum  cordati  est  negare 
id,  quod  graves  Auctores,  jideque  digni 
scribunt,  quodque  quotidiana  constat  expe^ 
rientia.  Argumenta  Thyrcei  nee  minimum 
cogunt,  ac  ea  solvimus  supra  a  «°45.  et 
seq.  Remanet  solum  satisfacere  qucestioni 
ubinam  locorum  habitent  hujusmodi  ho- 
munculi,  seu  Incubi?  Ad  quod  dico,  quod 
ut  supra  dedimus  «°  71.  ex  Guaccio,  isto- 
rum  alii  sunt  terrei,  alii  aquei,  alii  aerei, 
alii  ignei,  quorum  nem'pe  corpora,  aut 
constant  ex  talium  elementorum  subtiliori 
parte,  sive  licet  ex  pluribus  constent  de- 
mentis, prcevalet  tamen  in  iis,  aut  aqua, 
aut  aer  pro  ipsorum  natura.  Mansiones 
igitur,  et  domicilia  eorum  erunt  in  ele- 
mento  illo  cujus  natura  in  eorum  corpori- 
bus  prcevalet  :  ignei  enim  nisi  violenter,  et 
forte  nullomodo  in  aquis  aut  locis  palustri- 

Demoniality  17  5 

guments  :  given  such  little  men,  says  he, 
where  do  they  live,  how  and  where  do  they 
dwell  ?  How  do  they  keep  up  their  kind, 
through  generation  or  otherwise? Are  they 
born,  do  they  die,  with  what  food  do  they 
sustain  themselves?  Are  they  capable  of 
beatitude  and  damnation,  and  by  what 
means  do  they  procure  their  salvation  ? 
Such  are  the  arguments  upon  which  Thy- 
rseus  relies  for  denying  that  existence. 

87.  But  it  really  shows  little  judgment 
in  a  man,  to  deny  that  which  has  been 
written  by  grave  and  credible  Authors,  and 
confirmed  by  every  day  experience.  Thy- 
r^eus's  arguments  are  worthless  and  have 
been  already  refuted,  N"  45  and  following. 
The  only  question  which  remains  to  be 
answered  is  this  :  where  do  those  little 
men,  or  Incubi,  dwell?  To  that  I  reply:  as 
has  been  shown  above  (N'  71),  according 
to  Guaccius,  some  are  earthly,  some  aque- 
ous, some  aerial,  some  igneous,  that  is  to 
say,  that  their  bodies  are  made  of  the  most 
subtle  part  of  one  of  the  elements,  or,  if  of 
the  combination  of  many  elements,  that 
yet  there  is  one  which  predominates,  either 
water  or  air,  according  to  their  nature. 
Their  dweUings  will  consequently  be  found 
in  that  element  which  is  prevalent  in  their 

176  Daemonialitas 

bus  morabuntur,  cum  hcec  sint  sibi  contra- 
ria^  nee  aquei  ad  superiorem  cetheris  par- 
tem ascendere  poterunt  ob  sibi  repugnan- 
tem  regionis  illius  subtilitatem,  quod  etiam 
videmus  accidere  hominibiis,  qui  ad  quo- 
rumdam  Alpium  summa  juga  pervenire 
nequeunt  pr(^  summa  aeris  subtilitate,  quce 
homines  crassiori  aeri  assuetos  nutrire 

88.  Pluribus  sanctorum  Patrum  auctori- 
tatibus,  quas  congerit  Molina  in  p.  p.  D. 
Thorn.,  q.  5o.,  ar.  i.  circa  med.,  probare 
possemus  Dcemonum  corporeitatem ;  qua^ 
tamen  stante  determinatione  Concilii  Late- 
ranensis  de  incorporeitate  Angelorum,  ut 
dictum  fuit  supra  w°  By.,  exponi  debent 
de  Da^monibus  istis  Incubis,  ac  viator ibus 
adhuc,  non  autem  de  Damnatis.  Tamen  ne 
nimis  longus  sim,  solius  D.  Augustini, 
summi  Ecclesice  Doctoris,  auctoritates 
damus,  quibus  evidenter  convincitur  ilium 
fuisse  in  sententia,  quam  nos  docemus. 

89.   D.  Augustinus  igitur,  lib.    2.  super 
Genesim  ad  litteram  c.  17.    de  Daemoni- 

Demoniality  177 

bodies  :  igneous  Incubi,  for  instance,  will 
only  stay  forcibly,  may  be  will  not  stay  at 
all,  in  water  or  marshes,  which  are  adverse 
to  them ;  and  aqueous  Incubi  will  not  be 
able  to  rise  into  the  upper  part  of  ether, 
the  subtlety  of  which  region  is  repugnant 
to  them.  We  see  the  like  happen  to  men 
who,  accustomed  to  thicker  air,  cannot 
reach  certain  lofty  ridges  of  the  Alps  where 
the  air  is  too  subtle  for  their  lungs. 

88.  Many  testimonies  of  Holy  Fathers, 
gathered  by  Molina,  in  his  Commentary  of 
St  Thomas,  would  go  to  prove  the  corpor- 
eity of  Demons;  but,  taking  into  account 
the  above-quoted  decision  of  the  Council 
ofLateranCN""  37),  concerning  the  incorpor- 
eity  of  Angels,  we  must  understand  that 
the  Holy  Fathers  had  in  view  those  Incubi 
Demons  which  are  still  on  the  way  to  sal- 
vation, and  not  those  that  are  damned. 
However,  to  make  matters  short,  we  merely 
give  the  authority  of  St  Austin,  that  emi- 
nent Doctor  of  the  Church,  and  it  will  be 
clearly  seen  how  thoroughly  his  doctrine 
harmonizes  with  ours. 

89.  St  Austin,  then,  in  his  Commentary 
on  GenesiSy  book  2,  ch.  17,  writes  as  fol- 

1 78  Daemonialitas 

bus,  sic  habet :  «  Queedam  vera  nosse,  par- 
tim  quia  subtiliore  scnsus  acumine,  partim 
quia  subtilioribus  corporibus  vigent^  »  et 
lib.  3.  c.  I,,  «  etsi  Dasmones  aerea  sunt 
animalia,  quoniam  corporum  aereorum 
natura  vigent.  »  Et  Epistola  11 5.  ad  He- 
bridium  affirmat ,  cos  esse  «  animantia 
aerea,  seu  astherea  acerrimi  sensus.  »  Et 
de  Civit.  Dei  lib.  11.  c.  23.,  affirmat 
«  Daemonem  pessimum  habere  corpus 
aereum. »  Et  lib.  21.  c.  10.  scripsit :  «  Sunt 
sua  quasdam  etiam  Da^monibus  corpora, 
sicut  doctis  hominibus  visum  est,  ex  isto 
acre  crasso  et  humido.  »  Et  lib.  17.  c.  10. 
ait  «  se  non  audere  definire,  an  Angeli  cor- 
pore  aereo,  ita  corporati  possint  etiam 
hanc  pati  libidinem,  ut  quomodo  possint, 
sentientibus  foeminis  misceantur.  »  Et  in 
Enarrat  in  Psal.  85.  ait  «  corpora  beato- 
rum  futura  post  resurrectionem,  qualia 
sunt  corpora  Angelorum;  «  et  in  Enarrat. 
in  Psal.  4.5. ait  «  corpus  Angelicum  inferius 
esse  anima.  »  Et  lib.  De  Divinit.  Dcemo- 
num,  passim  per  totum,  maxime  c.  23,^ 
docet  (f  Dcemones  subtilia  habere  corpora. » 

90.  Potest   etiam   sententia  nostra  auc- 

Demoniality  1 79 

lows  concerning  Demons  :  «  They  have  the 
knowledge  of  some  truths,  partly  through 
the  more  subtle  acumen  of  their  senses, 
partly  through  the  greater  subtilty  of  their 
bodies  y>,  and,  book  3,  ch.  i  :  «  Demons 
are  aerial  animals,  because  they  partake  of 
the  nature  of  aerial  bodies.  »  In  his  Epistle 
ii5  to  Hebridius,  he  affirms  that  they  are 
«  aerial  or  ethereal  animals,  endowed  with 
very  sharp  senses,  -o  In  the  City  of  God, 
book  II,  ch.  1 3,  he  says  that  «  the  worst 
Demon  has  an  aerial  body  ».  Book  21,  ch. 
10,  he  writes  :  «  The  bodies  of  certain  De- 
mons., as  has  been  believed  by  some  learned 
men,  are  even  made  of  the  thick  and  damp 
air  which  we  breathe.  y>  Book  i5,  ch.  23  : 
«  He  dares  not  define  whether  Angels,  with 
an  aerial  body,  could  feel  the  lust  which 
would  incite  them  to  communicate  with 
women.  »  In  his  commentary  on  Psalm  85, 
he  says  that  «  the  bodies  of  the  blessed  will, 
after  resurrection,  be  like  unto  the  bodies 
of  Angels,'  »  Psalm  14,  he  observes  that 
«  the  body  of  Angels  is  inferior  to  the 
soul.  »  And,  in  his  book  De  Divinit.  Dce^ 
monum,  he  every-where,  and  especially 
.ch.  23,  teaches  that  «  Demons  have  subtle 
bodies  ». 

90.   Our  doctrine  can  also  be  confirmed 

i  80  Daemonialitas 

ioritatibus  Sacrce  Scripturce  comprobari, 
quce  licet  ah  Expositoribus  aliter  declaren- 
tur,  not!  incongrue  tamen  ad  nostrum  in- 
tentum  possunt  aptari.  Prima  est  Psalmi 
77.,  V.  24.  et  25.,  iibi  habetur  :  panem 
Angelorum  manducavit  homo,  panem  coeli 
dedit  eis.  Hie  loquitur  David  de  Manna, 
qua  cibatus  fuit  Populus  Israel  toto  tem- 
pore quo  peregrinus  fuit  in  deserto.  Quce- 
rendum  ergo  venit,  quo  sensu  Manna  did 
possit  panis  Angelorum.  Scio  quidem  ple- 
rosque  Doctores  exponere  hunc  passum  in 
sensu  mystico,  aientes  in  Manna  figura- 
tarn  esse  Sac  ram  Eucharistiam,  quce  voca- 
tur  panis  Angelorum,  quia  Angeli  fruun- 
tur  visions  Dei,  qui  per  concomitantiam 
in  Eucharistia  reperitur. 

91.  Sed  hcec  expositio  aptissima  est  qui^ 
dem,  etquam  amplectitur  Ecclesia  in  offi- 
cio Sanctissimi  Corporis  Christi,  sed  in 
sensu  spirituali  est.  Ego  autem  qucero  sen- 
sum  litteralem  :  neque  enim  in  illo  Psal- 
mo  David  loquitur  prophetice  de  futuris, 
sictit  facit  in  aliis  lociSy  lit  proinde  facile 
non  sit  sensum  litteralem  habere ;  sed  lo- 
quitur historice  de  prceteritis.  Ille  enim 
Psalmus,  ut  patet  legenti,  est  pura  anace- 
phalestis,  seu  compendium  omnium  benefi- 

Demoniality  i8i 

by  the  testimony  of  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
which,    however   diversely    construed    by 
commentators,  are  yet  capable  of  adapta- 
tion to  our  proposition.  First,  Psalm  77,  v. 
24  and  2  5,  it  is  said  :  «  The  Lord  had  f^iven 
them  of  the  bread  of  heaven ;  man  did  eat 
angels'  food.  »  David  here  alludes  to  Man- 
na, which  fed  the  People  of  Israel  during 
the  whole  time  that  they  wandered  in  the 
wilderness.  It  will  be  asked  in  what  sense 
it  can  be  said  of  Manna  that  it  is  the  Bread 
of  Angels.  I  am  aware  that  most  Doctors 
construe  this  passage  in  a  mystical  sense, 
saying  that  Manna  figures  the  Holy  Eu- 
charist, which  is  styled  the  bread  of  Angels^ 
because  Angels  enjoy  the  sight  of  God  who, 
by  concomitance,  is  found  in  the  Eucha- 

91.  A  most  proper  construction  assur- 
edly, and  which  is  adopted  by  the  Church 
in  the  office  of  the  Most  Holy  Body  of 
Jesus-Christ ;  but  it  is  in  a  spiritual  sense. 
Now,  what  I  want,  is  the  literal  sense;  for, 
in  that  Psalm,  David  does  not  speak,  as  a 
prophet,  of  things  to  be,  as  he  does  in 
other  places  where  a  literal  sense  is  not 
easily  to  be  gathered ;  he  speaks  here  as  a 
historian,  of  things  gone  by.  That  Psalm, 
as  is  evident  to  whoever  reads  it,  is  a  pure 


1 82  Daemonialitas 

cionim,  quce  contulit  Deus  Populo  Hebrceo 
ab  egressu  ipsius  de  ^gypto,  usque  ad 
tempus  Davidis,  et  in  eo  versa  loquitur  de 
Manna  Deserti,  ut  proinde  quceratur  quo- 
modo,  et  quo  sensu  Manna  vocetur  Panis 

92.  Scio  alios,  Lyran.,  Euthim.,  Bel- 
larm.,  Titelman.,  Genebrard.,  in  Psal.  77. 
V.  24.  et  lb.,  interpretari  Panem  Angelo- 
rum  Panem  ab  Angelis  paratum,  seu  An- 
gelorum  ministerio  a  Coelo  demissum ; 
Hugonem  autem  Cardinalem  Panem  An- 
gelorum  exponere  :  quia  ille  cibus  hoc  effi- 
ciebat  in  Judceis ,  quod  in  Angelis  efficit 
cibus  illorum,  pro  parte  :  Angeli  enim  non 
incurrunt  ^infirmitatem.  Voluerunt  enim 
expositores  Hebrcei,  ut  etiam  asseverat 
Josephus,  quod  Judcei  in  Deserto  vescentes 
manna,  nee  senescerent,  nee  cegrotarent, 
nee  lassarentur ;  proinde  ilia  esset  tan- 
quam  panis,  quo  vescuntur  Angeli,  qui  nee 
senio,  nee  cegritudine,  nee  lassitudine  un- 
quam  laborant. 

93.  Istas   quidern   expositiones    recipere 

cequum   est ,    utpote    tantorum   Doctorum 

aucthoritate  suffultas.  Facessit  tamen  dif- 

ficultatem ,    quod    ministerio    Angelorum 

Demoniality  i83 

anacephalaeosis,  or  summing  up  of  all  the 
benefits  conferred  by  God  on  the  Hebrew 
People  from  the  exodus  from  Egypt  to  the 
days  of  David,  and  the  Manna  of  the  Wild- 
erness is  spoken  of  in  it ;  how ,  and  in 
what  sense  is  it  styled  the  Bread  of  Angels? 
that  is  the  question. 

92.  I  am  aware  that  others  look  upon 
the  Bread  of  Angels  as  bread  prepared  by 
Angels,  or  sent  down  from  Heaven  by  the 
ministry  of  Angels.  But  Cardinal  Hugo 
explains  that  qualification  by  saying  that 
that  food  partly  produced  the  same  effect 
upon  the  Jews,  which  the  food  of  Angels 
produces  upon  the  latter.  Angels,  in  fact, 
are  not  liable  to  any  infirmity  ;  on  the 
other  hand  Hebrew  commentators,  and  Jo- 
sephus  himself,  assert  that  whilst  in  the 
Wilderness,  living  upon  Manna,  the  Jews' 
neither  grew  old,  nor  sickened,  nor  tired ; 
so  that  Manna  was  like  unto  the  bread  that 
Angels  feed  upon,  who  know  neither  old 
age,  nor  sickness,  nor  fatigue. 

93.  These  interpretations  should  indeed 
be  received  with  the  respect  due  to  the  au- 
thority of  such  eminent  Doctors.  There  is 
however  one  difficulty  in  this  :  that,  by  the 

184  Daemonialitas 

Hebrceis  non  minus  paratafuere  columna 
niibis,  et  ignis,  coturnices,et  aqua  de  peti'a, 
quam  manna;  nee  tamen  ista  dicta  fuere 
columna^  aqua,  aut  potus  Angelorum.  Cur 
ergo  potius  voeari  deberet  manna,  quia 
parata  ministerio  Angelorum,  Panis  An- 
gelorum, quam  Potus  Angelorum  aqua 
eorumdem  ministerio  saxo  educta?  Insu- 
per  in  sacra  Scriptura  panis  dum  dicitur 
panis  alicujus,  dicitur  panis  ejus  qui  illo 
vescitur,  non  ejus  qui  illurn  parat,  aut  fa- 
bricate et  de  hoc  injinita  habemus  exempla 
in  sacra  Scriptura  :  ut  Exod.  c.  23.  v.  25. 
Benedicam  panibus  tuis,  et  aquis ;  lib.  2. 
Reg.  c.  12.  V.  3.  De  pane  illius  comedens; 
Tob.  c.  4,  V.  17.  Panem  tuum  cum  ege- 
nis  comede;  et  v.  18.  Panem  tuum  super 
sepulturam  Justi  constitue;  Ecclesiast. 
c.  II.  V.  I.  Mitte  panem  tuum  super  tran- 
seuntes  aquas;  Isai.  c.  58.  v.  7.  Frange 
esurienti  panem  tuum  ;  Jerem.  c.  1 1 .  v.  19. 
Mittamus  lignum  in  panem  ejus;  Maith. 
c.  1 5.  V.  26.  Non  est  bonum  sumere  pa- 
nem filiorum;  Luc.  c.  it.  v.  3.  Panem 
nostrum  quotidianum.  Ex  quibus  locis 
patenter  habetur,  quod  panis  dicitur  ejus 
qui  eo  vescitur,  non  vero,  qui  ipsum  conji- 
cit,  affert,  aut  parat.  Commode  igitur  in 
loco  citato  Psalmi  accipi  potest  Panis  An- 
gelorum, cibus  quo  vescuntur  Angeli  non 

Demoniality  1 85 

ministry  of  Angels,  the  pillars  of  the  cloud 
and  fire,  the  quails,  and  the  water  from  the 
rock  were  provided  for  the  Hebrews,  no 
less  than  the  Manna ;  and  yet  they  were 
not  styled  the  pillar,  the  water  or  the  bev- 
erage of  Angels.  Why  therefore  should 
Manna  be  called  Bread  of  Angels,  because 
provided  by  their  ministry,  when  the  qual- 
ification Beverage  of  Angels  is  not  given 
to  the  water  drawn  from  the  rock  likewise 
by  their  ministry  ?  Besides,  in  Holy  Scrip- 
ture, when  it  is  said  of  bread  that  it  is  the 
bread  of  somebody,  it  is  always  the  bread 
of  him  who  feeds  on  it,  not  of  him  who  pro- 
vides or  makes  it.  Of  this  there  are  num- 
berless instances  :  thus.  Exodus,  ch.  23, 
V.  25  :  «  That  I  may  bless  thy  bread  and 
thy  water ;  »  Kings,  book  2,  ch.  12,  v.  3  : 
«  Eating  of  his  bread;  »  Tobit^  ch.  4,  v. 
17  :  «  Give  of  thy  bread  to  the  hungry,  » 
and  V.  18  :  «  Pour  out  thy  bread  on  the 
burial  of  the  Just ;  »  Ecclesiasticus,  ch.  11, 
V.  I  :  «  Scatter  thy  bread  over  the  flowing 
waters;  »  Isaiah,  ch.  58,  v.  7  :  «  Deal 
thy  bread  to  the  hungry;  »  Jeremiah^  ch.  1 1 , 
V.  19  :  «  Let  us  put  wood  into  his  bread;  » 
Matthew,  ch.  i.5,  v.  26  :  «  It  is  not  meet  to 
take  the  children's  bread;  »  Luke,  ch.  11, 
V.  3  :  «  Our  daily  bread.  »  All  those  pas- 
sages clearly  show  that,  in  Scripture,  the 

1 86  Daemonialitas 

qtiidem  incorporei  {isti  enim  materiali  cibo 
non  egent),  sed  corporei,  ista  nempe  ratio- 
nalia  animalia,  de  quibus  hucusque  disse- 
ruimus,  degentia  in  aere,  et  quce  ratione 
tenuitatis  suorum  corporum,  ac  rationalis 
naturce,  quam  maxime  ad  Angelas  imma- 
teriales  accedunt,  ut  proinde  nuncupentur. 

94.  Ducor,  quia  cum  animalia  sint,  et 
ideo  generabilia  et  corruptibilia ,  egent 
cibo,  ut  restauretur  substantia  corporea, 
qua^  per  effluvia  deperditur;  vita  enim  sen- 
tientis  non  consistit  nisi  in  motu  partium 
corporearum  qua^  JIuimt,  ac  rejluunt,  ac- 
quiruntur,  ac  deperduntur,  ac  iteriim  re- 
par  antur ;  quoi  reparatio  fit  per  substan- 
tias spirituosas,  materiales  tamen,  attra^ 
etas  a  vivente,  tum  per  aeris  inspirationem, 
tum  par  ferment ationem  cibi,  per  quam 
substantia  illius  spirituali^atur^  ut  ratio- 
natur  doctissimus  Ettmullerus,  Instit.  Me- 
dic. Physiolog.,  c.  2. 

Demoniality  1 87 

bread  of  somebody  is  the  bread  of  him  who 
feeds  upon  it,  not  of  him  who  makes, 
brings  or  provides  it.  In  the  passage  of  the 
Psalm  we  have  quoted,  Bread  of  Angels 
may  therefore  easily  be  taken  to  mean  the 
food  of  Angels,  not  incorporeal  indeed, 
since  these  require  no  material  food,  but 
corporeal,  that  is  to  say  of  those  rational 
animals  we  have  discoursed  of,  who  live 
in  the  air,  and,  from  the  subtlety  of  their 
bodies  and  their  rationality,  approximate 
so  closely  to  immaterial  Angels  as  to  fall 
under  the  same  denomination. 

94.  I  deduce  that,  being  animals,  conse- 
quently reproducible  through  generation 
and  liable  to  corruption,  ihey  require  food 
for  the  restoration  of  their  corporeal  sub- 
stance wasted  by  effluvia  :  for  the  life  of 
every  sensible  being  consists  in  nothing 
else  but  the  motion  of  the  corporeal  ele- 
ments which  flow  and  ebb,  are  acquired, 
lost  and  recruited  by  means  of  substances 
spirituous,  yet  material,  assimilated  by  the 
living  thing,  either  through  the  inhalation 
of  air,  or  by  the  fermentation  of  food 
which  spiritualizes  its  substance,  as  shown 
by  the  most  learned  Ettmuller  [Instit. 
Medic.  P/iysiolog.,  ch.  2). 

1 88  Daemonialitas 

95.  Qiiia  autcm  eorum  corpus  ieniieest, 
tenui  pariter,  et  subtili  egct  alimento.  Hinc 
est  quod  sicut  odoribus  aliisque  substantiis 
vaporosis,  ac  volatilibus  sua'  naturce  con- 
trariis  Iceduntur  ac  fugantur,  ut  constat 
ex  historiis  recitatis  supra,  n^  j2., 
ita  paribus  rebus  sibi  convenientibus  de- 
lectantur,  et  aluntur.  Pprro  «  manna  non 
est  aliud,  quam  halitus  aqucT,  terra^que, 
solis  calore  cxacte  attenuatus  et  coctus,  a 
frigore  secutce  noctis  in  unum  coactus, 
densatusque,  »  ut  scribit  Cornelius;  manna 
dicu,  quam  demissam  de  coelo  comederunt 
Hebran,  quco  toto  caelo  differt  a  manna 
nostrate,  quce  in  medicinis  adhibetur ;  nam 
hcec,  ut  scribit  Ettmullerus  Schroder,  Di- 
lucid.  Physiolog.,  c.  i.  de  Manna, /o/.  m. 
154.,  fc  nihil  aliud  est,  quam  succus  qua- 
rumdam  arborum  tenuis,  vel  earum  trans- 
sudatio,  qua,^  nocturno  tempore  permixta 
cum  rore,  matutino  tempore  superventu 
caloris  solis'  coagulatur,  et  inspissatur.  » 
Manna  autem  Hebrceorum  diversis  orta 
principiii  calore  solis  non  coagulabatur, 
sed  vice  versa  liquejiebat,  ut  patet  ex  Scri- 
ptura,  Exod.  c.  16.  v.  22.  Manna  ergo 
Hebra'orum  utpote  constans  ex  halitibus 
tenuibus  terra'  et  aqua',  profecto  tenuissi- 
ma;  erat  substantias,  utpote,  qua'  a  sole 
solvebatur,   et    disparebat ;    optime    ergo 

Demoniality  1 89 

95.  But,  their  body  being  subtile,  equally- 
subtile  and  delicate  must  be  its  food.  And, 
just  as  perfumes  and  other  vaporous  and 
volatile  substances,  when  adverse  to  their 
nature,  offend  and  put  them  to  flight,  as 
testified  by  what  we  related  above  (N''^  71 
and  72),  in  the  like  manner,  when  agreed- 
able,  they  delight  in  and  feed  upon  them. 
Now,  as  is  written  by  Cornelius,  «  Manna 
is  nothing  but  an  emanation  of  water  and 
earth,  refined  and  baked  by  the  heat  of  the 
sun,  and  then  coagulated  and  condensed  by 
the  cold  of  the  following  night ;  »  of  course, 
I  am  speaking  of  the  Manna  sent  down 
from  Heaven  for  the  nourishment  of  the 
Hebrews,  and  which  differs  all  in  ail  from 
nostrate  or  medicinal  manna  :  the  latter, 
in  fact,  according  to  Ettmuller  [Dilucid. 
Physiol.,  ch.  i ),  «  is  merely  the  juice  or 
transudation  of  certain  trees  yvhich ,  during 
the  night,  gets  mixed  up  with  dew,  and, 
the  next  morning,  coagulates  and  thickens 
in  the  heat  of  the  sun.  »  The  manna  of  the 
Hebrews,  on  the  contrary,  derived  from 
other  principles,  far  from  coagulating, 
liquefied  in  the  heat  of  the  sun,  as  is 
shown  by  Scripture,  Exodus,  ch.  16,  v.  22. 
The  manna  of  the  Hebrews  was  therefore 
undoubtedly  of  a  most  subtile  substance, 
consisting  as  it  did  of  emanations  of  earth 

190  Daemonialitas 

potuit  esse  talium  animalium  cibus,  ita  ut 
diceretur  a  David  Panis  Angelorum. 

96.  Alia  auctoritas  habetur  in  Evange- 
lio  Joannis,  in  quo,  Johannes,  c.  10.  v.  16., 
ita  dicitur  :  Alias  oves  habeo,  quee  non 
sunt  ex  hoc  ovili,  et  illas  oportet  me  ad- 
ducere,  et  vocem  meam  audient,  et  fiet 
unum  ovile,  et  unus  Pastor.  Si  quceramus 
qucenam  sint  oves,  quce  non  sunt  ex  hoc 
ovili,  et  qualenam  sit  ovile  de  quo  loquitur 
Christus  Dominus^  respondent  communiter 
Expositores  unum  ovile  Christiesse  Eccle- 
siam,  adquam  perducendi  erant  per  prce- 
dicationem  Evangelii  Gentiles,  qui  erant 
oves  alterius  ovilis,  ah  ovili  Hebrceorum  : 
opinantur  enim  Synagogam  esse  Christi 
ovile,  quia  dicebat  David,  Psal.  94.  v.  9  : 
Nos  populus  ejus  et  oves  pascuee  ejus;  et 
quia  Messias  promissus  fuerat  Abraham 
et  David  oriturus  ex  eorum  semine,  et  a 
populo  Hebrceo  expectatus,  et  a  Prophetis 
qui  Hebrcei  erant  vaticinatus,  et  ejus  ad- 
ventus,  conversatio,  passio,  mors  et  re- 
surrectio  in  sacrificiis,  cultu,  et  ceremo- 
niis  Hebrceorum  legis  erant  pra'jigurata. 

Demoniality  1 9  r 

and  watefj  and  being  dissolved  by  the  sun 
and  made  to  disappear  :  consequently,  it 
may  very  well  have  been  the  food  of  the 
animals  we  are  speaking  of,  and  thus  have 
been  truly  called  by  David  Bread  of  An- 

96.  We  have  another  authority  in  the 
Gospel  according  to  St  John,  ch.  10,  v.  16, 
where  it  is  said  :  «  And  other  sheep  1  have, 
which  are  not  of  this  fold :  them  also  I  must 
bring,  and  they  shall  hear  my  voice,  and 
there  shall  be  onefold  and  one  shepherd.  » 
If  we  inquire  what  are  those  sheep  which 
are  not  of  that  fold,  and  what  the  fold  of 
which  the  Lord  Christ  speaketh,  we  are 
answered  by  all  Commentators  that  the 
only  fold  of  Christ  is  the  Church  to  which 
the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  was  to  bring 
the  Gentiles,  sheep  of  another  fold  than 
that  of  the  Hebrews.  They  are,  in  fact,  of 
opinion  that  the  fold  of  Christ  was  the 
Synagogue,  because  David  had  said.  Psalm 
95,  V.  7 :  «  We  are  the  people  of  his  pasture, 
and  the  sheep  of  his  hand  » ,  and  also 
because  Abraham  and  David  had  been 
promised  that  the  Messiah  should  be  born 
of  their  race,  because  he  was  expected  by 
the  Hebrew  people  ,  foretold  by  the  Pro* 
phets  who  were    Hebrews,  and  that   his 

92  Dcemonialiias 

97.  Sed  salva  semper  Sanctorum  Pa- 
triim,  ac  aliorum  Doctoriim  reverentia, 
non  videtur  talis  expositio  ad  plenum  sa- 
tis/acere.  Habemus  cnim  quod  de  fide  est 
a  principio  mundi  Ecclesiam  Fidelium  ex- 
titisse  unam,  usque  ad  Jinem  sa'culi  dura- 
turam.  Cujus  Ecclesice  caput  est  mediator 
Dei  et  hominum  Christus  Jesus,  cujus  con- 
templatioue  creata  sunt  imiversa,  et  omnia 
per  ipsum  facta.  Fides  enim  unius  Dei 
Trini  (quamvis  non  ita  explicite),  et  Verbi 
Incarnatio  revelata  fuit  primo  homini,  et 
ab  ipso  edocti  ejus  filii,  et  ab  iis  descenden^ 
tes.  Hinc  est  quod  quamvis plerique  homines 
ad  idolatriam  dejlexerint,  ac  veram  Jidem 
deseruerint,  multi  tamen  veram  Jidem  a 
patribus  sibi  traditam  retinuerunt ,  et  le- 
gem naturae  servantes  in  vera  Ecclesia 
Fidelium  permanserunt,  ut  observat  Car- 
dinalis  Toletus  in  Job,  c.  10.  v.  16.,  et  ap- 
paret  in  Job,  qui  inter  Gentiles  Idolatras 
sanctus  fuit.  Qiiamvis  autem  Deus  populo 
Hebra^o  speciales  favores  contulerit,  pecu- 
liaremque  legem,  ac  ceremonias  illi  prcu- 
scripserit,  ac  a  Gentilibus  segregarerit.  non 

Demoniality  193 

advent,  his  acts,  his  passion,  death  and 
resurrection  were  prefigured  in  the  sacri- 
fices,  worship  and  ceremonials  of  the 
Hebrew  law. 

97.  But,  saving  always  the  reverence  due 
to  the  Holy  Fathers  and  other  Doctors, 
that  explanation  does  not  seem  quite  satis- 
factory. For  it  is  an  article  of  belief  that 
the  Church  of  the  Faithful  has  be.en  the 
only  one  in  existence  from  the  beginning 
of  the  world,  and  \\\\\  thus  endure  to  the 
end  of  time.  The  head  of  that  Church  is 
Jesus-Christ,  the  mediator  between  God  and 
men,  by  whose  contemplation  all  things 
were  made  and  created.  Indeed,  the  faith  in 
the  divine  Trinity,  though  less  explicitly, 
and  the  Incarnation  of  the  Word  were  re- 
vealed to  the  first  man,  and  by  him  taught 
his  children,  who,  in  their  turn,  taught 
them  their  descendants.  And  thus,  although 
most  men  had  strayed  into  idolatry  and 
deserted  the  true  faith,  many  kept  the  faith 
they  had  received  from  their  fathers,  and 
observing  the  law  of  nature,  stayed  in  the 
true  Church  of  the  Faithful,  as  is  noticed 
by  Cardinal  Tolet  in  reference  to  Job,  who 
was  a  saint  among  idolatrous  Gentiles.  And, 
although  God  had  conferred  especial  fa- 
vours upon  the  Hebrew  people,  prescribed 


l94  Daemonialitas 

tamen  ad  earn  legem  Gentes  tenebantur, 
necjideles  Hebrcei  aliam  Ecclesiam  consti- 
tuebant  ab  Ecclesia  Gentilium,  qui  jidem 
unius  Dei  et  Messice  venturi  profile bantur. 

98.  Hinc  est,  quod  etiam  ex  Gentilibus 
fuere,  .qui  Christi  adventum,  et  alia  Chri- 
stianas jidei  dogmata  prophetarunt,  ut  pa- 
tet  de  Balaam,  Mercuric  Trismegisto,  Hy- 
daspe,  ac  Sibyllis,  de  quibus  loquitur  Lac- 
tantius,  lib.  i.  c.  6.,  ut  scribit  Cardinalis 
Baronius  in  Apparatu  Annal.  «°  18.  Et 
quod  Messias  erat  a  Gentilibus  expectatus 
habet  Isaias  in  pluribus  locis,  et  luculen- 
tum  testimonium  de  hoc  est  prophetia  Pa- 
triarchce  Jacob  de  Messia ,  quce  sic  ait, 
Gen.  c.  49.  V.  10  :  Non  auferetur  sceptrum 
de  Juda,  et  dux  de  femore  ejcis,  donee  ve- 
nial qui  mittendus  est,  et  ipse  erit  expe- 
ctatio  Gentium.  Item  Prophetia  Aggcei, 
c.  2.  V.  8  ;  Movebo  omnes  Gentes,  et  veniet 
desideratus  cunctis  gentibus,  quern  locum 
explicans  Cornelius  a  Lap.  in  Aggae.  c.  2. 
V.  8.  §  Denique  gentes,  ait  :  «  Gentes  ante 
Christum  credentes  in  Deum  lege  naturae, 
oeque  ac  Judaei  expectabant  ac  desidera- 
bant  Christum.  »  Pariter  Christus  ita   se 

Demoniality  iqS 

for  them  peculiar  laws  and  ceremonials, 
and  separated  them  from  the  Gentiles,  yet 
those  laws  were  not  obligatory  on  the 
Gentiles,  and  the  faithful  Hebrews  did  not 
constitute  a  Church  different  from  that  of 
the  Gentiles  who  professed  their  faith  in 
one  God  and  the  coming  of  the  Messiah. 

98.  And  thus  it  came  to  pass  that  even 
among  the  Gentiles  there  were  some  who 
prophesied  the  advent  of  Christ  and  the 
other  dogmas  of  the  Christian  faith,  to  wit 
Balaam,  Mercurius  Trismegistus ,  Hy~ 
daspes,  and  the  Sibyls  mentioned  by  Lac- 
tantius,  book  i,  ch.  6,  as  written  by 
Baronius,  Apparat.  Annal.,  «»  18.  That 
the  Messiah  was  expected  by  the  Gentiles 
is  shown  by  many  passages  of  Isaiah,  and 
plainly  testified  by  the  prophecy  of  Jacob, 
the  Patriarch,  thus  worded,  Genesis,  ch. 
49,  V.  10  :  «  The  sceptre  shall  not  depart 
from  Judah,  nor  a  law-giver  from  between 
his  feet,  until  Shiloh  {he  who  is  to  be  sent) 
come,  and  unto  him  shall  the  gathering  of 
the  people  be.  »  —  Likewise  in  the  pro- 
phecy of  Haggai ,  ch.  2 ,  v.  8  :  «  /  will 
shake  all  Nations ,  and  the  desire  of  all 
Nations  shall  come  »;  which  passage  is 
thus  commented  by  Cornelius  a  Lapide  : 
«  The  Gentiles  before  the  advent  of  Christ, 

ig6  Daemonialitas 

prodidit,  et  manifestavit  Gentibus ,  stent 
Juda'is  :  si  enim  in  ipsiiis  nativitate  per 
Angelum  ejus  notitia  data  fiiit  Pastoribus, 
per  stellam  miraculosam  ad  sui  adoratio- 
nem  vocavit  Magos,  qui  cum  essent  Genti- 
les fuerunt  primitia?  Gentium  in  Christo 
agnoscendo,  et  adorando,  ut  ait  S.  Ful- 
gentius,  Sermon.  6.  dc  Epiph.,  sicut  Pas- 
tores  fuerunt  primitia'  Judceorum.  It  idem 
manifestatio  adventus  Christi  per  prccdica- 
tionem  ( non  quidem  Apostolorum )  prius 
facta  est  Gentilibus ,  quam  Judceis  ;  siqiti- 
dem  ut  scribit  Ven.  Mater  S  or  or  Maria  de 
Agreda,  in  Vita  J.  C.  et  B.  M.V.,p.  i.  /.  4.  c, 
26.  n.  664  :«  Quando  B.M.Virgo  cum  S.Jo- 
seph portavit  Puerum  Jesum'iniEgyptum, 
fugiendo  Herodis  persecutioncm,  mansit 
ibi  per  septennium  :  quo  tempore  ipsa 
Beatissima  Virgo  pra^dicavit  iEgyptiis  veri 
Dei  fidem,  et  Filii  Dei  in  carne  humana 
adventum.  »  Ulterius  in  Christi  nativitate 
multa  fuere  prodigia  non  solum  in  Judaea, 
sed  in  ^Egypto,  ubi  corruerunt  idola,  ac 
oracula  conticuere;  Roma.',  ubi  fons  olei 
scaturiit;  visus  globus  aurei  coloris  de 
ccelo  in  terram  descendere ;  apparuere  tres 
soles;  ac  contra  naturam  circulus  variega- 
tus  ad  modum  iridis  so  lis  discum  circum- 
scripsit;  in  Grcecia,  ubi  oraculum  Delphi- 
cum  obmutuit ,  et  interrogatus  Apollo  ab 

Demoniality  197 

who  believed  in  God  and  observed  the  law 
of  nature,  expected  and  desired  Christ 
equally  with  the  Jews.  »  Christ  himself 
disclosed  and  manifested  himself  to  the 
Gentiles  as  well  as  to  the  Jews;  for,  at  the 
same  time  as  the  Angel  apprized  the  shep- 
herds of  his  nativity,  by  means  of  the 
miraculous  star  he  called  the  Magi  to 
worship  him,  who,  being  Gentiles,  were 
the  first  among  the  Nations,  as  the  shep- 
herds among  the  Jews,  to  acknowledge 
and  worship  Christ  (  Vide  St  Fulgentius, 
Sermon  6,  upon  Epiphany ).  In  like  manner, 
the  advent  of  Christ  was  made  known  by 
preaching  (I  am  not  speaking  of  the 
Apostles)  to  the  Gentiles  before  it  was  to 
the  Jews.  As  is  written  by  the  Venerable 
Mother,  Sister  Maria  of  Agreda,  in  her 
Life  of  Jesus-Christ  and  the  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary  :  «  When  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary, 
fleeing  with  St  Joseph,  from  the  persecu- 
tion of  Herod,  carried  the  Infant  Jesus  into 
Egypt,  she  tarried  there  seven  years; 
and,  during  that  time,  the  Blessed  Virgin 
herself  preached  to  the  Egyptians  the  faith 
of  the  true  God  and  the  advent  of  the  Son 
of  God  in  human  flesh.  »  Besides,  the  nativ- 
ity of  Christ  was  attended  by  numerous 
prodigies,  not  only  in  Judnsa,  but  also  in 
Egypt,  where  the  idols  tumbled  and  the 

198  Daemonialitas 

Augusto  ipsi  sacrificante  in  propria  pala- 
tio,  ubi  eidem  aram  extruxerat,  de  causa 
silentii  sui,  respondit,  ut  referunt  Nice- 
phorus,  I.  I  G.ij.,  Suidas,  verba  Augustus, 
et  Cedrenus,  Compend.  Hislor. : 

Me  puer  Hebrccus,  Divos  Deus  ipse  gubernans, 
Cedere  sede  jubet,  tristemque  redire  sub  orcum; 
Aris  ergo  dehinc  tacitis  abscedito  nostris. 

Et  multa  alia  acciderunt  prodigia,  quibus 
prcenunciabatur  Gentilibus  Filii  Dei  ad- 
ventus,  quce  ex  variis  Aucthoribus  recital 
Baranius,  Apparat.  Annal.  Eccles.  n®  24. 
et  seq.,  et  Cornelius  in  Agg^e.  c.  1.  v.  8. 

99.  Ex  istis  patet,  quod  etiam  Gentiles 
pertinebant  ad  ovile  Christi  idem,  ad  quad 
spectabant  Jiidan,  puta  ad  Ecclesiam  earn- 
dem  jidelem ;  igitur  non  potest  recte  diet, 
quod  ilia  verba  Christi  :  Alias  oves  habeo, 
qu2e  non  sunt  ex  hoc  ovili,  accipienda  sint 
de  Gentilibus ,    qui  communem   cum   He- 

Demoniality  1 99 

oracles  were  hushed;  in  Rome,  where  a 
spring  of  oil  gushed  out,  a  gold-coloured 
globe  was  seen  to  descend  from  the  skies 
on  earth,  three  suns  appeared ,  and  an 
extraordinary  ring,  variegated  like  a  rain- 
bow, encircled  the  disc  of  the  sun ;  in  Greece, 
where  the  oracle  of  Delphi  was  struck 
dumb,  and  Apollo,  asked  the  reason  of 
his  silence  by  Augustus,  who  was  offering 
up  a  sacrifice  in  his  own  palace  where  he 
had  raised  an  altar  to  him,  answered  : 

M  A  Hebrew  child,  who  sivays  the  Gods,  and  himself  a 

»  Bids  me  quit  my  seat  and  return  to  the  infernal 

regions ; 
»  Depart  therefore  from  our  altars^  henceforward 

mute.  » 

There  were  many  more  prodigies  warning 
the  Gentiles  of  the  advent  of  the  Son  of 
God  :  they  have  been  collected  from  various 
Authors,  by  Baronius,  and  are  to  be  found 
in  his  Apparatl  Annul.  Eccles,,  and  Corne- 
lius, Commentary  upon  Haggai. 

99.  From  all  this  it  is  clear  that  the  Gen- 
tiles also  belonged,  like  the  Jews,  to  the 
fold  of  Christ,  that  is,  to  the  same  Church 
of  the  Faithful;  it  cannot  therefore  be 
correctly  said  that  the  words  of  Christ  : 
«  Other  sheep  I  have,  which  are  not  of  this 
fold  »,  are  applicable  to  the  Gentiles,  who 

200  Daemonialitas 

bracts  habuerunt  de  Deo  jidem,  de  Messia 
spem,  prophetiayn,  expectationem,  et  signa, 
et  prcedicationem. 

100.  Dico  igitiir  quod  nomine  aliarum 
ovium  commode  possunt  intelligi  Creatu- 
rce  istcv  rationales,  sive  animalia,  de  qtii- 
bus  hucusque  disseruimus.  Cum  enim,  ut 
diximus,  capaces  sint  beatitudinis,  et  dam- 
nationis,  et  Christus  Jesus  sit  mediator 
Dei,  et  hominum^  immo  totius  rationalis 
creatura'  {creatura^  enim  rationales,  qua' 
beatitudinem  consequuntur ,  hanc  obtinent 
intuitu  meritorum  Christi  per  ab  eo  sibi 
collatam  gratiam,  sine  qua  nequit  beati^ 
tudo  obtineri),  debuit  omnis  rationalis  crea- 
tura  de  eo  venturo  spem  habere,  sicut  de 
uno  Deo  jidem,  et  de  ipsius  in  came  nati- 
vitate,  et  de  pra'Ceptis  legis  gratia' mani- 
festationem.  Ista^  igitur  erant  oves,  quce 
non  erant  ex  hoc  ovili  humano,  et  quas 
adducere  Christum  oportebat,  et  qua'  ejus 
vocem  nempe  notitiam  de  ipsius  adventu, 
et  de  evangelica  doctrina,  quantum  per  se, 
tum  per  Apostolos  Christus  erat  mani/es- 
taturus,  audire  debebant,  et  ex  iis  ac  ho- 
minibus  in  ccelo  beatificatis  fieri  unum 
ovile,  et  unus  Pastor. 

Demoniality  20 1 

had,  in  common  with  the  Hebrews,  the  faith 
in  God,  the  hope,  prophecy,  expectation, 
prodigies  and  preaching  of  the  Messiah. 

100.  I  therefore  say  that  by  the  words 
other  sheep  may  very  well  be  understood 
those  rational  Creatures  or  animals  of 
whom  we  have  been  treating  hitherto.  They 
being,  as  we  have  said,  capable  of  beatitude 
and  damnation,  and  Jesus-Christ  being  the 
mediator  between  God  and  man,  as  also 
every  rational  Creature  (for  rational  crea- 
tures attain  to  beatitude  in  consideration 
of  the  merits  of  Christ,  through  the  grace 
he  confers  upon  them,  without  which  bea- 
titude is  impossible  of  attainment),  every 
rational  creature  must  have  cherished,  at 
the  same  time  as  the  faith  in  one  God,  the 
hope  of  the  advent  of  Clyist,  and  have  had 
the  revelation  of  his  nativity  in  the  flesh 
and  of  the  principles  of  the  law  of  grace. 
Those  were  therefore  the  sheep  which 
were  not  of  that  human  fold,  and  which 
Christ  had  to  bring ;  the  sheep  which  were 
to  hear  His  voice,  that  is,  the  announcement 
of  His  advent  and  of  the  evangelical  doc- 
trine, either  directly  through  Himself,  or 
through  the  Apostles ;  the  sheep  which, 
partaking  with  men  of  heavenly  beatitude, 
were  to  realize  one  fold  and  one  shepherd. 


202  Daemonialitas 

I  or.  Huic  expositioni  qiiam  incongruam 
non  puto,  vim  addit  id  quod  supra  n°  77. 
ex  D.  Hieronymo  retulimus  de  homunculo 
illo  qui  rogavit  D.  Antonium,  ut  commu- 
nem  Deum,  quern  in  came  humana  esse 
passum  cognoverat ,  pro  se  et  suis  depre- 
caretur.  Innuitur  enim  ex  his,  quod  illi 
notitiam  habuerunt  de  adventu  et  morte 
Christi,  quern  tamquam  Deum  optabant 
sibi  propitium,  ut  proinde  ad  hoc  interces- 
^ionem  D.  Antonii  expostularent. 

102.  Facit  ad  idem  id,  quod  ex  Eusebio 
de  PrcEparat.  Evang.  /.  5.  c.  9.,  et  Plutar- 
cho  I.  de  Defectu  Oracul.,  refert  Cardi- 
nalis  Baronius,  Appar.  Annal.  w«  129.,  et 
recenset  inter  prodigia,  qua^  tempore  mor- 
tis Christi  evenere.  Recital  igitur  ex  cita- 
tis  Aucthoribus  quod  Tiberii  Imperatoris, 
sub  quo  passus  est  Christus,  tempore,  na- 
vigantibus  nonnullis  a  Grcecia  in  Italiam, 
circa  Insulas  Echinades,  cessatis  ventis, 
noctu  navigium  appulit  prope  terram.  Au- 
dita fuit  ab  omnibus  vox  magna  quce  vo- 
cavit  Tramnum.  Erat  is  Nauclerus  na- 
vigii  .  quo  resondente  Adsum,  replicavit 
vox  :  «  Quando  perveneris  prope  quandam 
paludem,  annunciabis  Magnum  Pana  mor- 
TuuM  ESSE  »  :  quod  cum  Tramnus  fecisset, 

Demoniality  20  3 

1 01.  To  this  interpretation,  which  I  hold 
to  be  in  no  way  improper,  force  is  added 
by  what  we  related,  according  to  St  Hiero- 
nymus,  of  that  little  man  who  requested 
St  Anthony  to  pray,  for  him  and  his  fel- 
lows, unto  the  common  God,  whom  he 
knew  to  have  suffered  in  human  flesh.  For, 
it  implies  that  they  were  aware  of  the 
advent  and  of  the  death  of  Christ,  w^hom^ 
as  God,  they  were  anxious  to  propitiate, 
since  they  sought,  to  that  effect,  the  inter- 
cession of  St  Anthony. 

102.  Thereto  tends  also  the  fact  men- 
tioned by  Cardinal  Baronius  [Appar.  An- 
nal.  n^  129),  after  Eusebius  and  Plutarch, 
as  being  one  of  the  prodigies  which  took 
place  at  the  time  of  the  death  of  Christ. 
He  relates  that  in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Tiberius,  when  Christ  suffered,  whilst 
mariners  bound  from  Greece  to  Italy,  were 
by  night,  and  during  a  calm,  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  Echinade  Isles,  their  ship  was 
brought  close  to  land.  All  the  crew  heard 
a  loud  voice  calling  Tramnus,  the  master 
of  the  ship.  He  having  answered  to  his 
name,  the  voice  replied  :  «  When  near 
such  a  marsh,  announce  that  the  great  Pan 
is  dead.  »  Which  Tramnus  having  done, 
there  arose  suddenly,  as  from  a  numberless 

204  Daemonialitas 

auditi  sunt  repente  multorum,  imo  Inulti- 
tudinis  prope  infinitcB  gemitus,  et  ululatus. 
Profecto  isti  fuernnt  Dcvmones,  sen  Angeli 
corporei,  sen  animalia  rationalia  prope 
paludem  degentia,  utpole  aquea,  qucc  au- 
dita morte  Christi,  qui  nomine  magni  Pan 
efferebatur,  in  lacrymas  et  lamenta  effusa 
sunt;  prout  etiani  Hebra'i  nonnulli  visa 
Christi  morte  pcrcutientes  pectora  sua  re- 
vertebantur  (Luc.  c.  23.  v.  48.).  Ex  huc- 
iisque  igitur  deductis  patet,  quod  dantur 
hujusmodi  Dcemones ,  succubi  et  incubi , 
constantes  sensu  ,  et  ipsius  passionibus  ob- 
noxii,  lit  probatum  est;  qui  generantur, 
corrumpuntur ,  et  capaces  sunt  beatitudi- 
nis,  et  damnationis ,  et  ratione  corporis 
subtilioris,  nobiliores  homine  sunt,  et  qui  si 
cum  hominibus,  maribus  autfoeminis,  carna- 
liter  commiscentur ,  peccant^  et  eo  peccato, 
quo  peccat  homo  jimgendo  se  cum  bruto, 
quod  est  homine  ignobilius ;  proinde  non 
raro  hi  Da^mones  consuetudinem  haben- 
tes  cum  homine,  aut  equabus,  post  Ion- 
gam  habitant  communicationem  cos  inter- 
ficiunt.  Causa  porro  hujus  est,  quod  si 
inter  tales  datur  peccalum,  cum  sint  in 
via,  dari  etiam  debet poenitentia ;  sicut  ergo 
homini  peccanti  consuetudinaliter  cum 
bruto,  ad  tollendam  occasionem  recidi- 
vandi,   Confessarius    injungit,   ut   brutiim 

Demoniality  20  5 

multitude,  groans  and  shrieks.  Doubtless, 
they  were  Demons,  or  corporeal  Angels, 
or  rational  animals  living  near  the  marsh 
on  account  of  their  aqueous  nature,  and 
who,  hearing  of  the  death  of  Christ,  de- 
scribed by  the  name  of  Great  Pan,  burst 
into  tears  and  bewailing,  like  some  of  the 
Jews  who,  after  witnessing  the  death  of 
Christ,  went  home  smiting  their  breasts 
{Luke,  ch.  23,  v.  48).  From  all  that  has 
been  deduced  above,  it  is  therefore  clear 
that  there  are  such  Demons,  succubi  and 
incubi,  endowed  with  senses  and  subject 
to  the  passions  thereof,  as  has  been  shown ; 
who  are  born  through  generation  and  die 
through  corruption,  are  capable  of  beati- 
tude and  damnation,  more  noble  than  man, 
by  reason  of  the  greater  subtilty  of  their 
bodies,  and  who,  when  having  intercourse 
with  man,  male  or  female,  fall  into  the 
same  sin  as  man  when  copulating  with  a 
beast,  which  is  inferior  to  him.  Also,  it 
not  unfrequently  occurs  that  those  Demons 
slay  the  men,  women  or  mares  with  whom 
they  have  had  protracted  intercourse ;  and 
the  reason  is  that,  being  liable  to  sin  whilst 
on  the  way  to  salvation,  in  via^  they  must 
likewise  be  open  to  repentance ;  and,  in 
the  same  manner  as  a  man,  who  habitually 
sins  with  a  beast,  is  enjoined  by  his  con- 

2o6  Daemonialitas 

tollat  de  medio,  ita  tali  Dcomoni  consiie- 
tudinario  in  peccato,  et  tandem  poenitenti 
accidit,  ut  animal  cum  quo  peccavit ,  sive 
homo,  sive  brutum  fuerit,  occidat ;  nee 
enim  tali  Dcemoni  mors  data  homini  pec- 
catum  erit,  sicut  mors  data  bruto  non  im- 
putatur  tamquam  peccatum  homini  :  ra- 
tione  enim  essentialis  differentia'  inter 
Da^monem  hujusmodi ,  et  hominem,  idem 
erit  homo  Dcemoni,  quod  est  homini  brutum. 

io3.  Scio  mult  OS ,  et  forte  plerosque, 
qui  hcec  legerent,  dicturos  de  me,  quod 
Epicurei  et  Stoici  Philosophi  nonnulli 
dixerunt  de  Divo  Paulo,  Actor,  c.  17. 
V.  18.  :  Novo  rum  Daemoniorum  videtur 
annunciator,  et  datam  doctrinam  exsibil- 
labunt.  Sed  isti  tenebuntur  solvere  argu- 
menta  supra  posita,  et  dicere  quinam  sint 
Dcemones  isti  Incubi,  vulgo  Foletti ,  qui 
exorcismos,  res  sacras,  et  Christi  Crucem 
non  pavent,  ac  alios  effectus  istorum,  ac 
pha^nomena  salvare,  qucp  nos  ex  data  do- 
ctrina  ostendimus. 

104.  Solvitiir  ergo  ex  his,  qucp   hucus- 
que  deducta  sunt,  quojstio,  quam  proposui- 

Demoniality  207 

fessor  to  destroy  that  beast,  with  a  view  to 
suppressing  the  occasion  of  relapsing,  it 
may  likewise  happen  that  the  penitent  de- 
mon should  slay  the  animal  with  which  it 
sinned,  whether  man  or  beast;  nor  will 
death  thus  occasioned  to  a  man  be  reckon- 
ed a  sin  to  the  Demon,  any  more  than 
death  inflicted  on  a  beast  is  imputed  as  a 
sin  to  man ;  for,  considering  the  essential 
diff'erence  between  a  Demon  of  that  kind 
and  man,  the  man  will  be  the  same  thing 
to  the  Demon  as  the  beast  is  to  man. 

io3.  I  am  aware  that  many,  perhaps 
most  of  my  readers,  will  say  of  me  what 
the  Epicureans  'and  some  Stoic  Philo- 
sophers said  of  St  Paul  {Acts  0/ the  Apostles^ 
ch.  17,  V.  18).  «  He  seemeth  to  be  a  setter 
forth  of  strange  gods  » ,  and  will  deride 
my  doctrine.  But  they  will  none  the  less 
have  to  answer  the  foregoing  arguments, 
to  show  what  are  those  Incubi  Demons, 
commonly  called  Goblins^  who  dread  neither 
exorcisms,  nor  the  holy  things,  nor  the 
Cross  of  Christ,  and  to  explain  the  various 
effects  and  phenomena  related  when  pro- 
pounding that  doctrine. 

104.  What  we  have  hitherto  deduced  ac- 
cordingly solves  the   question  laid  down 

2o8  Daemonialitas 

mus  supra  n^  3o  et  «"  34  ;  resolutive 
innuimus,  quomodo  mulier  potest  ingravi- 
dari  a  da'mone  Incubo.  Non  enim  hoc 
prcestare  potest  ex  semine  sumpto  ab  ho- 
mine,  ut  jfert  communis  opinio,  quam  con- 
futavimus  n^  3i  et  32  ;  sequitur  ergo,  quod 
ipsa  ijnpra.'gnatur  a  semine  Incubi,  cum 
enim  animal  sit,  et  generet,  proprio  pallet 
semine  :  et  hoc  modo  optime  salvatur  ge- 
neratio  Gigantum  secuta  ex  commixtione 
Filiorum  Dei  cum  Filiabus  hominum;  nati 
siquidem  sunt  ex  tali  concubitu  Gigantes, 
qui  licet  homini  essent  similes,  corpore  ta- 
men  erant  majores  :  et  quamvis  a  Danno- 
nibus  geniti,  viribus  proinde  pollerent,  no7i 
tamen  Dannonum  vires  et  potentiam  a^qua- 
bantj  ut  sequitur  in  mulis,  hinnis  et  burdo- 
nibus,  qui  medii  quodammodo  sunt  inter 
eas  species  animalium,  a  quibus  promiscue 
generantur,  et  super  ant  quidem  imperfe- 
ctiorem,  non  attingunt  autem  perfectiorem 
speciem  generantium  :  mulus  enim  siipe- 
rat  asinum,  sed  non  cequat  perfectionem 
equce,  a  quibus  generatur. 

io5.  Conjirmat  autem  hanc  sententiam 
consideratio,  quod  animalia  genita  ex  com- 
mixtione diversarum  specierum  non  gene- 

Demoniality  209 

N'*  3o  and  34,  to  wit  :  how  a  woman  can 
be  got  with  child  by  an  Incubus  Demon? 
In  fact,  it  cannot  be  brought  about  by- 
sperm  assumed  from  a  man,  agreeably  to 
the  common  opinion  which  we  confuted, 
N''^  3 1  and  32;  it  follows,  therefore,  that 
she  is  directly  impregnated  by  the  sperm 
of  the  Incubus,  which,  being  an  animal 
and  capable  of  breeding,  has  sperm  of 
its  own.  Arid  thus  is  fully  explained  the 
begetting  of  Giants  from  the  intercourse 
of  the  Sons  of  God  with  the  Daughters  of 
men  :  for  that  intercourse  gave  birth  to 
Giants  who,  although  like  unto  men,  were 
of  higher  stature,  and,  though  begotten 
by  Demons,  and  consequently  of  great 
strength,  yet  equalled  them  neither  in 
might  nor  in  power.  It  is  the  same  with 
mules,  which  are  intermediate,  as  it  were, 
between  the  kinds  of  animals  from  whose 
proraiscuousness  they  are  sprung,  and 
w^hich  excel  indeed  the  most  imperfect,  but 
never  equal  the  most  perfect  :  thus,  the 
mule  excels  the  ass,  but  does  not  attain 
the  perfection  of  the  mare,  which  have 
begotten  it. 

io5.  In  confirmation  of  the  above  infer- 
ence, we  observe  that  animals  sprung 
from  the  mixing  of  ditferent  kinds  do  not 


210  Daemonialitas 

rant;  sed  sunt  sterilia,  ut  patet  in  mulis. 
Gigantes  autem  non  leguntur  Gigantes 
generasse,  sed  natos  a  Filiis  Dei,  puta  In- 
cubis,  et  Filiabus  hominum  :  cum  enim  con- 
cepti  fuerint  ex  semine  Dcemoniaco  mixto 
cum  humano ,  non  potuerunt,  tamquam 
media'  speciei  inter  Dcemonemet  hominem, 

1 06.  Dicelur  fortasse  contra  hoc,  non 
posse,  ex  semine  Dcemonum,  quod  pro  sui 
natura  opportet  esse  tenuissimum ,  fieri 
mixturam  cum  semine  humano,  quod  eras- 
sum  est;  unde  nee  generatio  sequipossit. 

107.  Respondeo  quod,  ut  dictum  fuit  su- 
pra w»  32  ;  virtus  generandi  consistit  in 
spiritu,  qui  simul  cum  materia  spumosa  et 
viscida  deciditur  a  generante;  sequitur  ex 
hoc,  quod  semen  Dcemonis  quantumvis  te- 
nuissimum, quia  tamen  materiale ,  optima 
potest  commisceri  cum  spiritu  materiali 
seminis  humani,  ac  fieri  generatio. 

108.  Replicabitur  adhuc  contra  conclu- 
sionem,  quod  si  vere  fuisset  Gigantum  ge- 
neratio ex  semine  Incuborum  et  Mulierum, 

Demoniality  2 1 1 

bre,ed,  but  are  barren,  as  is  seen  with 
mules.  Now  we  do  not  read  of  Giants 
having  been  begotten  by  other  Giants,  but 
of  their  having  been  born  of  the  Sons  of 
<jod,  that  is  Incubi,  and  the  Daughters  of 
men  :  being  thus  begotten  of  the  Demoniac 
sperm  mixed  with  the  human  sperm,  and 
being,  as  it  were,  an  intermediate  species 
between  the  Demon  and  man,  they  had  no 
generative  power. 

106.  It  may  be  objected  that  the  sperm 
of  Demons,  which  must,  by  nature,  be 
most  fluid,  could  not  mix  with  the  human 
sperm,  which  is  thick,  and  that,  conse- 
quently, no  generation  would  ensue. 

107.  I  reply  that,  as  has  been  said  above, 
N"^  32,  the  generative  power  lies  in  the 
spirit  that  comes  from  the  generator  at 
the  same  time  as  the  spumy  and  viscous 
ma.tter;  it  follows  that,  although  most 
liquid,  the  sperm  of  the  Demon,  being 
nevertheless  material,  can  very  well  mix 
with  the  material  spirit  of  the  human 
sperm,  and  bring  about  generation. 

108.  It  will  be  retorted  that,  if  the  gene- 
ration of  Giants  had  really  come  from  the 
combined  sperms  of  Incubi  and  Women, 

212  Daemonialitas 

nunc  qiioque  Gigantes  nascerentur  :  non  de~ 
sunt  enim  mulieres  coeuntes  cum  Incubis, 
lit  patet  ex  gestis  SS.  Bcrnardi  et  Petri 
de  Alcantara,  et  aliarum  historiarum,  quce 
passim  ab  auctoribus  recitantur. 

109.  Respondeo,  quod  prout  ex  Guaccio 
dictum  fuit  supra  n°  81  :  alii  sunt  hujus- 
modi  Da^mones  terrei ,  alii  aquei,  aerei 
alii,  et  alii  ignei,  qui  respective  in  propriis 
corum  dementis  habitant.  Videmus  autem 
animalia  eo  majora  esse  quo  majus  est 
elementum  in  quo  degunt,  ut  patet  in  pis- 
cibus,  inter  quos  licet  multi  sint  minuti,  ut 
etiam  sunt  plura  animalia  terrestria  minu- 
tissima ,  et  tamen  quia  elementum  aqua' 
majus  est  elemento  terra'  [utpote  continens 
majus  semper  est  contento ),  ideo  pisces  a 
tota  specie  superant  in  magniludine  molis 
animalia  terrestria,  ut  patet  in  balenis,  or- 
cynis ,  pistis  sen  pistricibus ,  ihynnis ,  ac 
aliis  piscibus  cetaceis,  sen  viviparis ,  qui 
quodvis  animal  terrestre  longe  superant. 
Porro  cu77y.  Dannones  hujusmodi  animalia 
sint,  ut  hucusque  probatum  est ,  eo  erunt 
majores  in  magnitudine  quo  elementum 
majus  pro  sui  natura  inhabitabunt.  Et  cum 
aer  excedat  aquam,  et  ignis  acre  major 
sit,    sequitur,  quod   Divmones  a'therei  ac 

Demoniality  2 1 3 

Giants  would  still  be  born  in  our  time, 
since  there  is  no  lack  of  women  who  have 
intercourse  with  Incubi,  as  is  shown  by 
the  Acts  of  St  Bernard  and  Peter  of  Al- 
cantara, and  other  stories  related  by- 
various  authors. 

109.  I  reply  that,  as  has  been  said  above, 
N"^  81,  from  Guaccius,  some  of  those  De- 
mons are  earthly,  some  aqueous,  some 
aerial,  some  igneous,  and  they  all  dwell 
in  their  respective  element.  Now,  it  is 
well  known  that  animals  are  of  larger  size, 
according  to  the  element  they  live  in  ;  thus 
with  fishes,  many  of  which  are  diminutive, 
it  is  true,  as  happens  with  animals  that 
live  on  land;  but,  the  element  water  being 
larger  than  the  element  earth,  since  the 
container  is  always  larger  than  the  con- 
tents, fishes  as  a  species,  surpass  in  size 
the  animals  that  dwell  on  land,  as  shown 
by  whales,  tunnies,  cachalots,  and  other 
cetaceous  and  viviparous  fish  which  surpass 
by  far  all  animals  that  live  on  land.  Conse- 
quently, these  Demons  being  animals,  as 
has  been  show^n,  their  size  will  be  propor- 
tionate to  the  extent  of  the  element  they 
dwell  in,  according  to  their  nature.  And, 
air  being  more  extensive  than  water,  and 
fire  than  air,  it  follows  that  ethereal  and 

214  Daemonialitas 

ignei  longe  superabunt  terrestres  et  aqiieos, 
turn  in  mole  corporis,  turn  in  virtute.  Nee 
contra  hoc  facit  instantia  de  avibus,  qui 
licet  incolant  aerem ,  qui  major  est  aqua, 
tamen  corpore  minores  sunt  a  tota  specie 
piscijbus  et  quadrupedibus,  quia  aves,  licet 
per  aerem  volatu  spatientur,  revera  tamen 
pertinent  ad  elementum  terrce,  in  qua 
quiescunt ;  aliter  enim  pisces  nonnulli  qui 
volant,  ut  hirundo  marina,  et  alii,  did 
deberent  animalia  aerea,  quod  falsum  est. 

no.  Advertendum  aiitem,  quod  post  di- 
luvium qer  iste  terraqueo  globo  citissimus 
magis  incrassatus  est  ex  humiditate  aqua- 
rum,  quam  fuerit  ante  diluvium,  et  hinc 
forte  est,  quod  ex  tali  humido ,  quod  est 
principium  corruptionis ,  fiat ,  quod  homi- 
nes non  a^tatem  ita  producant,  ut  faciebant 
ante  diluvium.  Ex  ista  autem  aeris  crassi- 
tie  fit,  quod  Dannones  aHherei,  ac  ignei, 
cceteris  corpulentiores ,  nequeunt  diutius 
manere  in  hoc  aere  crasso,  et  si  descendunt 
aliquando  hoc  fit  violenter,  et  eo  modo  quo 
urinatores  ad  ima  maris  descendunt. 

Demoniality  2 1 5 

Igneous  Demons  will  by  far  surpass  their 
earthly  and  aqueous  fellows,  both  in  stat- 
ure and  might.  It  would  be  to  no  purpose 
to  instance,  as  an  objection,  birds  which, 
although  inhabitants  of  the  air,  a  more 
extensive  element  than  water,  are  smaller, 
as  a  species,  than  fishes  and  quadrupeds; 
for,  if  birds  do  indeed  travel  through  the 
air  by  means  of  their  wings,  they  no  less 
belong  to  the  element  earth,  where  they 
rest;  otherwise,  some  fishes  that  fly,  such 
as  the  sea  swallow,  would  have  to  be 
classed  among  aerial  animals,  which  is 

no.  Now,  it  must  be  observed  that, 
after  the  flood,  the  air  which  surrounds 
our  earthy  and  aqueous  globe,  became, 
from  the  damp  of  the  waters,  thicker  than 
it  had  been  before;  and,|damp  being  the 
principle  of  corruption,  that  may  be  the 
reason  why  men  do  not  live  as  long  as 
they  did  before  the  floocQ  It  is  also  on 
account  of  that  thickness  of  the  air  that 
ethereal  and  igneous  Demons,  more  cor- 
pulent than  the  others,  can  no  longer 
dwell  in  that  thick  atmosphere,  and  if 
they  do  descend  into  it  occasionally,  do  so 
only  by  force,  much  as  divers  descend  into 
the  depths  of  the  sea. 

21 6  Dasmonialitas 

111.  Ante  diluvium    autem,   cum  adhuc 

aer  non  ita  crassus  erat,  veniebant  Dcemo- 

nes,  et  cum  mulieribus  miscebantur,  et  gi- 

gantes    procreabant ,    qui    magnitudinem 

corpoream  Dcvmonnm  generantium  a'mit- 

labantur.  Nunc  vero  ita  non  est  :  Dcemo- 

nes  enim   Incnbi,  qui  fosminas   incessunt, 

sunt  aquei  quorum  corporis  moles  magna 

non  est  :  et  proinde  infonma  homuncionum 

apparent,  et  quia  aquei  etiam  salacissimi 

sunt;    luxuria   enim    in   humido   est   :  ut 

proinde  Venerem  e  inari  natam  Poetcu  fin- 

xcrint,   quod  Mythologi  cxplicant   de  li- 

bidine,    qua.'   oritur    ab   humiditate.  Cum 

ergo  Da'mones,  qui  corpore  parvi  sunt  his 

temporibus  mulieres  impra'gnent ,  non  gi- 

gantes,   sed  staturcv  ordinariw  filii  nas- 

cuntur.  Sciendum  porro  quod  si  miscentur 

corporaliter  cum  mulieribus  Da^mones  in 

sua    ipsorum   corpulentia   naturali ,   nulla 

facta  immutatione  aut   artificio ,  mulieres 

illos    non    vidcnt,   nisi    tanquam    umbram 

pame  inccrtam,  ac  quasi  insensibilem,  ut 

patet  in  muliere  ilia,  de  qua  diximus  supra 

n^  2^.,  qucu  osculabatur  ab  incubo  ,    cujus 

tactus  vix  ab  ea  sentiebatur.  Qiiando  vero 

volunt  se  visibiles  amasiis  reddere ,  atque 

ipsis  delectationem    in   congressu   carnali 

afferre,  sibi  indumentum  visibile assinnunt, 

et  corpus  crassum  reddunt.  Qua  vero  hoc 

Demonialitjr  2 1 7 

III.  Before  the  flood,  when  the  air  was 
not  yet  so  thick,  Demons  came  upon  earth 
and   had    intercourse   with   women,   thus 
procreating  Giants  whose  stature  was  nearly 
equal  to  that  of  the  Demons,  their  fathers. 
But  now  it  is  not  so  :  the  Incubi  Demons 
who  approach  women  are  aqueous  and  of 
small  stature;  that  is  why  they  appear  in 
the    shape     of    little     men,   and,    being 
aqueous,  they  are  rnost   lecherous.rLust 
and  damp  go  togetherf  Poets  have  depicted 
Venus   as  born   of  the  sea,  in   order  to 
show,  as  explained  by  Mythologists,  that 
lust   takes   its    source   in  damp.    When, 
therefore,  Demons  of  short  stature  impreg- 
nate women  nowadays,  the  children  that 
are  born  are  not  giants,  but  men  of  ordi- 
nary size.  It  should,  moreover,  be  known 
that  when  Demons  have  carnal  intercourse 
with  women  in   their  own  natural  body, 
without  having  recourse  to  any  disguise  or 
artifice,  the  women   do   not  see  them,  or 
if  they  do,  see  but  an  almost  doubtful, 
barely  sensible   shadow,    as  was  the  case 
with  the  female  we  spoke  of,  N'  28,  who, 
when  embraced  by  an   Incubus,  scarcely 
felt  his  touch.  But,  when  they  want  to  be 
seen  by  their  mistresses,  atque  ipsis  delec- 
tationem  in  congressu  carnali  afferre,  they 
assume  a  visible  disguise  and  a  palpable 


2i8  Daemonialitas 

arte  fiat,  ipsi  norunt.  Nobis  curta  nostra 
Philosophia  hoc  non  pandit.  Unum  scire 
possumus,  et  est,  quod  tale  indumentum 
seu  corpus  ex  solo  aere  concreto  constare 
nequiret,  hoc  enim  esse  de beret  per  con- 
densationem,  et  proinde  per  frigus;  unde 
oporteret,  quod  corpus  illud  ad  tactum 
esset  veluti  glacies,  et  it  a  in  coitu  mulieres 
non  deleclaret,  sed  torqueret,  cum  tamen 
contrarium  eveniat. 

112.  Visa  igitur  differentia  Dcemonum 
spiritualium,  qui  cum  sagis  coeunt,  et  In^ 
cuborum  ,  qui  cum  fceminis  minime  sagis 
rem  habent,  perpendenda  est  gravitas 
hujus  criminis  in  utroque  casu. 

1 1 3.  In  coitu  sagarum  cum  Dcemoni' 
bus,  eo  quia  non  fit  nisi  cum  apostasia  a 
Fide,  et  Diaboli  cultu,  et  tot  aliis  impie- 
tatibus  quas  recensuimus  supra  a  m°  12. 
ad  24.,  est  maximum  quorumque peccato- 
rum,  quce  ab  hominibus  fieri  possunt  :  et 
ratione  tantce  enormitatis  contra  Religio- 
nem ,  quce  prcesupponitur  coitu  cum  Dia- 
bolo,  profecto  Dcemonialitas  maximum  est 
criminum  carnalium.  Sed  spectato  delicto 
carnis  ut  sic,   et  ut  abstracto   a  peccatis 

Demonialitjr  2 1 9 

body.  By  what  means  this  is  effected,  is 
their  secret,  which  our  short-sighted 
Philosophy  is  unable  to  discover.  The 
only  thing  we  know  is  that  such  disguise 
or  body  could  not  consist  merely  in  con- 
crete air,  since  this  must  take  place 
through  condensation,  and  therefore  by 
the  influence  of  cold;  a  body  thus  formed 
would  feel  like  ice,  et  ita  in  coitu  mulieres 
non  delectaret ,  but  would  give  them  pain  ; 
and  it  is  the  reverse  that  takes  place. 

112.  Being  admitted  the  distinction 
between  spiritual  Demons,  which  have 
intercourse  with  witches,  and  Incubi,  who 
have  to  do  with  women  that  are  nowise 
witches,  we  have  to  weigh  the  grievousness 
of  the  crime  in  both  cases. 

1 1 3.  The  intercourse  of  witches  with 
Demons,  from  its  accompanying  circum- 
stances, apostasy  from  the  Faith,  worship- 
ping of  the  Devil,  and  so  many  other 
ungodly  things  related  above,  N"  12  to 
24,  is  the  greatest  of  all  sins  which  can  be 
committed  by  man ;  and,  considering  the 
enormity  against  Religion  which  is  presup- 
posed by  coition  with  the  Devil,  Demo- 
niality  is  assuredly  the  most  heinous  of 
all   carnal  crimes.  But,  taking  the  sin  of 

2  20  Daemonialitas 

contra  Religionem ,  Dcemonialitas  redi- 
genda  est  adsimplicem  pollutionem.  Ratio, 
et  quidem  convincentissima,  est  quia  Dia- 
bolus ,  qui  rem  habet  cum  sagis ,  purus 
spiritus  est,  et  est  in  termino  ac  damnatus 
lit  dictum  supra  fuit;  proinde  si  cum  sa- 
gis coit,  hoc  facit  in  corpore  assumpto,  aut 
a  se  formato ,  ut  sentiunt  communiter 
Theologi.  Porro  corpus  illud  quamvis  mo- 
veatur ,  non  tamen  vivens  est ;  sequitur 
ergo  quod  coiens  cum  tali  corpore,  sive 
mas  sive  foemina  fuerit,  idem  delictum 
committit ,  ac  si  cum  corpore  inanimato 
aut  cadavere  coiret,  quod  esset  simplex 
mollities,  ut  alias  demonstravimus.  Verum 
est,  quod,  ut  observavit  etiam  Cajetanus , 
talis  coitus  effective  potest  habere  defor- 
mitates  aliorum  criminum  juxta  corpus  a 
Diabolo  assumptum,  et  vas  :  si  enim  assu- 
meret  corpus  virginis  consanguinece,  aut 
Sacrce,  effective  esset  tale  crimen  incestus 
aut  sacrilegium,  et  si  in  figura  bruti  co- 
iret, aut  in  vase  prcepostero,  evader  et  Bes- 
tialitas  aut  Sodomia. 

14.  In  coitu  autem  cum  Incubo,  in  quo 

Demoniality  221 

the  flesh  as  such,  exclusive  of  the  sins 
against  Religion,  Demoniality  should  be 
reduced  to  simple  pollution.  The  reason  is, 
and  a  most  convincing  one,  that  the  Devil 
who  has  to  do  with  witches  is  a  pure 
spirit,  has  reached  the  goal  and  is  damned, 
as  has  been  said  above;  if,  therefore,  he 
copulates  with  witches,  it  is  in  a  body- 
assumed  or  made  by  himself,  according  to 
the*  common  opinion  of  Theologians. 
Though  set  in  motion,  that  body  is  not  a 
living  one ;  and  it  follows  that  the  human 
being,  male  or  female,  coiens  cum  tali 
corpore,  is  guilty  of  the  same  offence 
as  if  copulating  with  an  inanimate  body 
or  a  corpse ,  which  would  be  simple 
pollution,  as  we  have  shown  elsewhere.  It 
has,  moreover,  been  truly  observed  by 
Cajetanus,  that  such  intercourse  can  very 
well  carry  with  it  the  disgraceful  charac- 
teristics of  other  crimes,  according  to  the 
body  assumed  by  the  Devil,  and  the  part 
used  :  thus,  if  he  should  assume  the  body 
of  a  kinswoman  or  of  a  nun,  such  a  crime 
would  be  incest  or  sacrilege ;  if  coition 
took  place  in  the  shape  of  a  beast,  or  in, 
vase  prcepostero,  it  would  be  Bestiality  or 

1 14.  As  for  intercourse  with  an  Incubus, 


222  Daemonialitas 

nulla  habetur  qualitas,  vel  minima,  crimi- 
nis  contra  Religionem,  difficile  est  rationem 
invenire,  per  quam  tale  delictum  Bestiali- 
tate  et  Sodomia  gravior  esset.  Siquidem 
gravitas  Bestialitatis  prce  Sodomia,  prout 
supra  diximus,  consistit  in  hoc,  quod 
homo  vilificat  dignitatem  suce  speciei  jun- 
gendose  cum  bruto  quod  est  speciei  longe 
in/erioris  sua.  In  coitu  autem  cum  Incubo 
diversa  est  ratio  :  nam  Incubus  raHone 
spiritus  rationalis,  ac  immortalis,  cequalis 
est  homini;  ratione  vero  corporis  nobilio- 
ris,  nempe  subtilioris ,  est  perfectior ,  et 
dignior  homine;  et  hoc  modo  homo  jun- 
gens  se  Incubo  non  vilificat ,  immo  digni- 
ficat  suam  naturam,  et  ita,  juxta  hanc 
consider ationem,  Dcemonialitas  nequit  esse 
gravior  Bestialitate. 

lib.  Tamen  gravior  communiter  cense- 
fury  et  ratio,  meo  videri,  potest  esse  : 
quia  peccatum  contra  Religionem  est,  quce- 
vis  communicatio  cum  Diabolo,  sive  ex 
pacto ,  sive  non ;  puta  habendo  cum  eo 
consuetudinem  aut  familiaritatem,  seu  ab 
eo  petendo  auxilium,  consilium ,  favorem , 
aut  ab  ipso  qucerendo  revelationem  futu- 
rorum,   relationem  prceteritorum,   absen- 

Denioniality  223 

wherein  is  to  be  found  no  element,  not 
even  the  least,  of  an  offence  against  Reli- 
gion, it  is  hard  to  discover  a  reason  why  it 
should  be  more  grievous  than  Bestiality 
and  Sodomy.  For,  as  we  have  said  above,  if 
Bestiality  is  more  grievous  than  Sodomy, 
it  is  because  man  degrades  the  dignity  of 
his  kind  by  mixing  with  a  beast,  of  a  kind 
much  inferior  to  his  own.  But,  when  copu- 
lating with  an  Incubus,  it  is  quite  the 
reverse  :  for  the  Incubus,  by  reason  of  his 
rational  and  immortal  spirit,  is  equal  to 
man;  and,  by  reason  of  his  body,  more 
noble  because  more  subtile,  he  is  more 
perfect  and  more  dignified  than  man.  Con- 
sequently, when  having  intercourse  with 
an  Incubus,  man  does  not  degrade,  but 
rather  dignifies  his  nature;  and,  taking 
that  into  consideration,  Demoniality  cannot 
be  more  grievous  than  Bestiality. 

1 1 5.  It  is,  however,  commonly  held  to 
be  more  grievous,  and  the  reason  I  take  to 
be  this  :  that  it  is  a  sin  against  Religion  to 
hold  any  communication  with  the  Devil, 
either  with  or  without  compact,  for  instance 
by  being  habitually  or  familiarly  connected 
with  him,  by  asking  his  assistance,  counsel 
or  favor,  or  by  seeking  from  him  the  re- 
velation of  things  to  be,  the  knowledge  of 

224  Dasmonialitas 

tium,  aut  alias  occultorum.  Hujusmodi 
autem  homines,  sen  mulieres,  concumbendo 
cum  Incubis,  quos  nesciunt  animalia  esse, 
sed  putant  esse  diabolos,  contra  conscien- 
tiam  erroneam  delinquunt ;  et  hoc  modo  ex 
conscientia  erronea  ita  peccant  cum  Incu- 
bis se  jungendo,  ac  si  cum  diabolis  co- 
irent  :  iinde  et  gravitatem  ejusdem  crimi- 
nis  incurrunt. 


Demoniality  22  5 

things  gone  by,  absent,  or  otherwise 
hidden.  Thus,  men  and  women,  by  mixing 
with  Incubi,  whom  they  do  not  know  to 
be  animals  but  believe  to  be  devils,  sin 
through  intention,  ex  conscientia  erronea, 
and  their  sin  is  intentionally  the  same, 
when  having  intercourse  with  Incubi,  as  if 
such  intercourse  took  place  with  devils; 
in  consequence,  the  grievousness  of  their 
crime  is  exactly  the  same. 



The  manuscript  of  Demoniality  breaks  oft 
with  the  conclusion  just  given.  In  a  purely 
philosophical  and  theoretical  acception,  the 
work  is  complete  :  for  it  was  enough  that  the 
author  should  define,  in  general  terms,  the 
grievousness  of  the  crime,-  without  concern- 
ing himself  with  the  proceedings  which  were 
to  make  out  the  proof,  nor  with  the  penalty 
to  be  inflicted.  Both  those  questions,  on  the 
contrary,  had,  as  a  matter  of  course,  a  place 
assigned  to  them  in  the  great  work  De  DelictiS 
et  Pcenis,  which  is  a  veritable  Code  for  the 
Inquisitor;  and  Father  Sinistrari  of  Ameno 
could  not  fail  to  treat  them  there  with  all  the 
care  and  conscientiousness  he  has  so  amply 
shown  in  the  foregoing  pages. 

The  reader  will  be  happy  to  find  here  that 
practical  conclusion  to  Demoniality. 

{Note  by  the  Editol*.) 



1.  De  probatione    criminis   Dsemonialitatis, 
distinguendum  est. 

2.  Indicia  probantia  coitum  Sagae  cum  Dia- 

3.  Requiritur    confessio    ipsius  malefici  ad 
plenam  probationem. 

4.  Histofia  de  Moniali  habente  consuetudi- 
nem  cum  Incubo. 

5.  Si  adsint  indicia  visa  in  recitata  historia, 
potest  ad  torturam  deveniri. 

1.  Quantum  ad  probationem  hujus  cri- 
minis attinet,  distinguendum  est  de  Dcemo- 
nialitate,  puta,  vel  ejus,  qucv  a  Sagis  sen 
Maleficisjit  cum  Diabolis ;  sive  de  ea,  quce' 
ah  aliisft  cum  Incubis, 



1.  Distinctions  to  be  made  in  the  proof  of 
the  crime  of  Demoniality. 

2.  Signs  proving  the  intercourse  of  a  Witch 
with  the  Devil. 

3.  The  confession  of  the  Sorcerer  himself  is 
requisite  for  a  full  eviction. 

4.  Tale  of  a  Nun  who  had  an  intimacy 
with  an  Incubus. 

5.  If  the  indictment  is  supported  by  the 
recitals  of  eye-witnesses ,  torture  may  be 
resorted  to. 

I.  As  regards  the  proof  of  that  crime,  a 
distinction  must  be  made  of  the  kind  of 
Demoniality,  to  wit  :  whether  it  is  that 
which  is  practiced  by  Witches  or  Wizards 
with  the  Devil,  or  that  which  other  per- 
sons perpetrate  with  Incubi, 

23o  Dasmonialltas 

2.  Quoad  primam,  probata  crimine  pacti 
facti  cum  Diabolo,  probata  remanet  Dae- 
monialitas  ex  consequentia  necessaria; 
nam  scopus  tum  Sagarum,  tum  Malefico- 
rum  in  ludis  nocturnis,  ultra  convivia,  et 
choreas,  est  hujiismodi  in/amis  congressus  : 
aliter,  illius  criminis  nullus  potest  esse 
testis,  quia  Diabolus^  qui  Sagce  visibilis 
est,  aliorum  oculos  effugit.  Verum  est, 
quod  aliquoties  visce  sunt  mulieres  in  syl- 
vis,  agris,  et  nemoribus,  supince  jacentes, 
ad  umbilicum  tenus  denudatce,  et  juxta 
dispositionem  actus  venerei,  divaricatis  et 
adductis  cruribus,  dunes  agitare,  prout 
scribit  Guacc,  lib.  i,  cap.  12,  v.  Scien- 
dum est  saspius,  fol.  65.  Tali  casu  emer- 
geret  suspicio  vehemens  talis  criminis, 
dummodo  esset  aliunde  adminiculata ,  et 
crederem  talem  actum  per  testes  sufficien- 
ter  probatum,  sufficere  Judici  ad  indagan- 
dam  tormentis  veritatem;  et  hoc  maxime, 
si  post  aliqualem  moram  in  illo  actu,  visus 
fuisset  a  muliere  elevari  quasi  fumus  ni- 
ger,  et  tunc  mulierem  surgere,  prout  ibi- 
dem scribit  Guaccius;  talis  enim  fumus, 
aut  umbra,  Dcemonemfuisse  concumbentem 
cum  foemina  inferre  potest.  Sicut  etiam,  si 
mulier  visa  fuisset  concumbere  cum  homine, 
qui  post  actum  de  repente  evanuit,  ut  non 
semel  accidisse  idem  auctor  ibidem  narrat. 

Demoniality  23 1 

2.  In  the  first  case,  the  compact  entered 
into  with  the  Devil  being  proved,  the  evid- 
ence of  Demoniality  follows  as  a  neces- 
sary consequence  ;  for,rthe  purpose,  both 
of  Witches  and  Wizards,  in  the  nightly  re- 
vels  that    take   place    after   feasting  and 
dancing,  is  none  other  but  that  infamous 
intercourse;^] otherwise  there    can   be   no 
witness  of  that  crime,  since  the  Devil,  vis- 
ible to  the  Witch,   escapes   the  sight  of 
others.  Sometimes,  it  is  true,  women  have 
been  seen  in  the  woods,  in  the  fields,  in 
the  groves,  lying  on  their  backs,  ad  umbi- 
licum  tenus  nudata^,  et  juxta  dispositionem 
actus  venerei,  their  legs  divaricatis  et  ad- 
duct  is,  dunes  agitare,  as   is   written   by 
Guaccius,  book  I,  chap.  12,  v.  Sciendum 
est  scepius,  fol.  65.  In  such  a  case  there 
would  be  a  very  strong  suspicion  of  such 
a  crime,  if  supported  by  other  signs  ;  and 
I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  such  action, 
sufficiently  proved  by   witnesses,   would 
justify  the  Judge  in  resorting  to  torture  in 
order  to  ascertain  the  truth ;  especially  if, 
shortly  after  that  action,  a  sort  of  black 
smoke   had  been  seen  to   issue   from  the 
woman,  and  she  had  been  noticed  to  rise, 
as  is  also  written  by  Guaccius ;  for  it  might 
be  inferred  that  that  smoke  or  shadow  had 
been  the  Devil  himself,  concumbens  cum 

32  Daemonialitas 

3.  Cceterum  ad  probandum  concluden- 
ter  aliquem  esse  Maleficum,  seu  Malefi- 
cam,  requiritur  propria  confessio ;  nullus 
enim  haberi  potest  de  hoc  testis,  nisi  forte 
sint  alii  Malefici,  qui  in  judicio  deponunt 
de  complicibiis;  sed  quia  socii  criminis 
sunt  y  eorum  dictum  non  concludit ,  nee 
etiam  ad  torturam  sufficit,  nisi  alia  exis- 
tent indicia,  puta,  sigilliim  Diaboli  im- 
pressum  in  eorum  corpore,  prout  dixi- 
miis  supra  nMm.i'h.\  et  in  eorum  domibus, 
facta  perquisitione ,  inveniant  signa,  ac 
instrumenta  artis  diabolicce,  ut  ossa  mor- 
tuorum ,  prcesertim  calvariam  ;  crines 
artifciose  contextos ;  nodos  plumarum 
intricatos ;  alas,  aut  pedes,  aut  ossicula 
vespertilionum,  aut  bufonum,  aut  serpen- 
tium;  ignotas  seminum  species;  fguras 
cereas;  vasculos  plenos  incognito  pulvere^ 
aut  oleo,  aut  unguentis  minime  notis,  etc., 
ut  ordinarie  contingit  reperiri  a  Judi' 
cibus,  qui,  accepta  accusatione  de  hu- 
jusmodi  SagiSy  ad  capturam,  et  domus 
visitationem    deveniunt ,    ut    scribit    Del- 

Demoniality  233 

fcemina.  Likewise  if,  as  has  more  than 
once  happened,  according  to  the  same  au- 
thor ,  a  woman  had  been  seen  concumbere 
cum  homine,  who,  the  action  over,  sud- 
denly disappeared. 

3.  Moreover,  in  order  to  prove  conclusi- 
vely that  a  person  is  a  Wizard  or  a  Witch, 
the  own  confession  of  such  person  is  re- 
quisite :  for  there  can  be  no  witnesses  to 
the  fact,  unless  perhaps  oi;her  Sorcerers 
giving  evidence  at  the  trial  against  their 
accomplices;  from  their  being  confederates 
in  the  crime,  their  statement  is  not  con- 
clusive and  does  not  justify  the  recourse 
to  torture,  should  not  other  indications  be 
forthcoming,  such  as  the  seal  of  the  Devil 
stamped  on  their  body,  as  aforesaid,  N'"  23, 
or  the  finding  in  their  dwelling,  after  a 
search,  of  signs  and  instruments  of  the 
diabolic  art  :  for  instance,  bones  and,  es- 
pecially, a  skull,  hair  artfully  plaited,  in- 
tricate knots  of  feathers,  wings,  feet  or 
bones  of  bats,  toads  or  serpents,  unfami- 
liar seeds,  wax  figures,  vessels  filled  with 
unknown  powder,  oil  or  ointments,  etc.,  as 
are  usually  detected  by  Judges  who,  upon 
a  charge  being  brought  against  Sorcerers, 
proceed  to  their  apprehension  and  the 
search  of  their  houses. 

2  34  Daemonialitas 

bene,  de  Off.  S.  Inquis.,  par.  2.  dub,  206, 
num.  7. 

4.  Quantum  vero  ad  prohationem  con' 
gressus  cum  Incubo,  par  est  difficultas; 
non  minus  enim  Incubus,  ac  alii  Diaboli 
effugiunt,  quando  volunt,  visum  aliorum, 
lit  videri  se  faciunt  a  sola  amasia.  Tamen 
non  raro  accidit,  quod  etiam  visi  sint  In- 
cubi  modo  sub  una^  modo  sub  alia  specie 
in  actu  carnali  cum  mulieribus. 

In  quodam  Monasterio  [nomen  ejus  et 
urbis  taceOj  ne  veterem  ignominiam  me- 
morise refricem)  qucedam  fuit  Monialis, 
quce  cum  alia  Moniali,  quce  cellam  habebat 
suce  contiguam,  simultatem  ex  levibus  cau- 
sis,  ut  assolet  inter  mulieres,  maxime  Re- 
ligiosaSy  habebat.  Hiec  sagax  in  observan- 
do  quascumque  actiones  Monialis  sibi  ad- 
versce^  per  plures  dies  vidit,  quod  ista  in 
diebus  c^stivis,  statim  a  prandio  non  spa- 
tiabatur  per  viridarium  cum  aliis,  sed  ab 
iis  sequestra,  se  retrahebat  in  cellam,  quam 
sera  obserabat.  Observatrix  igitur  cemula 
curiositate  investigans ,  quid  tali  tempore 
ilia  facere  posset,  etiam  ipsa  in  propriam 
cellam  se  recipiebat;  ccepit  autem  audire 
submissam  quasi  duorum  insimul  collo- 
quentium  vocem  {quod  facile  erat,  nam 
cella  parvo  simplicis,  scilicet  lateris  unius. 

Demonialitjr  2  35 

4.  The  proof  of  intimacy  with  an  Incu- 
bus offers  the  same  difficulty;  for,  no  less 
than  other  Demons,  the  Incubus  is,  at 
will,  invisible  to  all  but  his  mistress.  Yet, 
it  has  not  seldom  happened  that  Incubi 
have  allowed  themselves  to  be  surprised 
in  the  act  of  carnal  intercourse  with  wo- 
men, now  in  one  shape,  how  in  another. 

In  a  Monastery  ( I  mention  neither  its 
name  nor  that  of  the  town  where  it  lies, 
so  as  not  to  recall  to  memory  a  past  scan- 
dal), there  was  a  Nun,  who,  about  trifles, 
^s  is  usual  with  women  an4  especially 
with  nuns,  had  quarrelled  with  one  of  her 
mates  who  occupied  a  cell  adjoining  to 
hers.  Quick  at  observing  all  the  doings  of 
her  enemy,  this  neighbour  noticed,  sever- 
al days  in  succession,  that  instead  of 
walking  with  her  companions  in  the  gar- 
den after  [dinner  she  retired  to  her  cell, 
where  she  locked  herself  in.  Anxious  to 
know  what  she  could  be  doing  there  all 
that  time,  the  inquisitive  Nun  betook  her- 
self also  to  her  cell.  Soon  she  heard  a 
sound,  as  of  two  voices  conversing  in  sub- 
dued tones,  which  she  could  easily  do, 
since  the  two  cells  were  divided  but  by  a 

236  Daemonialitas 

disterminio  dividebatur),  mox  sonitum  pop- 
pysmatum  ',  concussionis  lecti,  gannitus, 
ac  anhelitus,  quasi  duorum  concubentium ; 
unde  aucta  in  cemula  curiositate  stetit  in 
observatione,  ut  sciret,  quinam  in  ilia  cella 
essent,  Postquam  autem  per  tres  vices  vi- 
dit,  nullam  aliam  Monialem  egressam  e 
cella  ilia,  propter  cemulam,  dominam  cellce, 
suspicata  est  Monialem  in  camera  abscon- 
ditum  aliquem  virum,  clanculum  introduc- 
tum,  retinere;  unde  et  rem  detulit  ad  Abba- 
tissam,  quce  consilio  habito  cum  discretis, 
voluit  audire  sonitus,  et  observare  indicia 
relata  ab  accusatrice^  ne  prcecipitanter  et 
inconsiderate  ageret.  Abbatissa  igitur  cum 
discretis  se  receperunt  in  cellam  obser- 
vatricis,  et  audierunt  strepitus,  et  voces, 
quas  accusatrix  detulerat.  Facta  igitur 
inquisitione,  an  ulla  Monialium  potuisset 

I.  Poppy smatum.  —  That  word  being  but 
little  used,  it  may  be  useful  to  record  here 
the  definition  given  of  it  by  the  Glossarium 
eroticum  linguae  latince  (auctore  P.  P.,  Paris, 
1826)  : 

PoppYSMA.  —  Oris  pressi  sonus,  similis  illi  quo 
permulcentur  equi  et  canes.  Obscene  vero  de 
susurro  cunni  labioriim,  quum  frictu  mades- 

Father  Sinistrari,   well    versed    in  classical 

Demoniality  287 

slight  partition),  therf  a  peculiar  friction, 
the  cracking  of  a  bed,  groans  and  sighs, 
quasi  duorum  concumbentium ;  her  curiosity- 
was  raised  to  the  highest  pitch,  and  she  re- 
doubled her  attention  in  order  to  ascertain 
who  was  in  the  cell.  But  having,  three  ti- 
mes running,  seen  no  other  nun  come  out 
but  her  rival,  she  suspected  that  a  man 
had  been  secretly  introduced  and  was 
kept  hidden  there.  She  went  and  reported 
the  thing  to  the  Abbess,  who,  after  hold- 
ing counsel  with  discreet  persons,  resolved 
upon  hearing  the  sounds   and  observing 

literature,  had  turned  to  account  the  following 
epigram  of  Martial  (book  VII,  18)  :• 


Quum  tibi  sit  fades,  de  qua  necfoemina  possit 

Dicere,  quum  corpus  nulla  litura  notet; 
Cur  te  tarn  rarus  cupiat,  repetatque  fututor, 

Miraris?  Vitium  est  non  leve,  Galla,  tibi. 
Accessi  quoties  ad  opus,  mixtisque  movemur 

Ing-tiinibus,  cunnus  non  tacet,  ipsa  taces. 
Di  facerent,  ut  tu  loquereris,  et  ipse  taceret ! 

Offender  cunni  garrulitate  tui. 
Pedere  te  mallem  :  namque  hoc  nee  inutile  dicit    ■ 

Symmachus,  et  risum  res  movet  ista  simul. 
Quis  ridere potest  fatui  poppysmata  cunni? 

Quum  sonat  hie,  cui  non  mentula  mensque  cadit 
Die  aliquid  saltern,  clamosoque  obstrepe  cunno  : 

Et  si  adeo  muta  es,  disce  vel  inde  loqui. 

( Editorial  Note. ) 

238  Daemonialitas 

secum  in  ilia  cella  clausa  esse,  et  repcrto 
quod  non,  Abbatissa  cum  discretis  fuit  ad 
ostium  cellce  clausce;  et  pulsato  frustra 
pluries  ostio ,  cum  Monialis  nee  respon- 
dere,  nee  aperire  vellet,  Abbatissa  minata 
est,  se  velle  ostium  prosterni  facere,  et 
vecte  aggredi  opus  fecit  a  quadam  con- 
versa.  Tunc  aperuit  ostium  Monialis,  et 
facta  perquisitione,  nullus  inventus  est  in 
camera.  Interrogata  Monialis  cum  quo- 
nam  loqueretur,  et  de  causa  concussionis 
lecti,  anhelituum,  etc.,  omnia  negavit. 

Cum  vero  res  perseveraret ,  accuratior, 
ac  curiosior  reddita  Monialis  cemula  per- 
foravit  tabulas  lacunaris,  ut  posset  cellam 
introspicere ;  et  vidit  elegantem  quemdam 
juvenem  cumMoniali  concumbentem,  quern 
etiam  eodem  modo  ab  aliis  Monialibus  vi- 
dendum  curavit.  Delata  mox  accusations 
ad  Episcopum ,  ipsaque  Moniali  omnia 
negante,  tandem  metu  tormentbrum  com- 

Demoniality  289 

the  indications  that  had  been  denounced 
her,  so  as  to  avoid  any  precipitate  or  inconsi- 
derate act.  In  consequence,  the  Abbess  and 
her  confidents  repaired  to  the  cell  of  the 
spy,  and  heard  the  voices  and  other  noises 
that  had  been  described.  An  inquiry  was 
set  on  foot  to  make  sure  whether  any  of 
the  Nuns  could  be  shut  in  with  the  other 
one ;  and  the  result  being  in  the  negative, 
the  Abbess  and  her  attendants  went  to  the 
door  of  the  closed  cell,  and  knocked  re- 
peatedly, but  to  no  purpose  :  the  Nun 
neither  answered,  nor  opened.  The  Abbess 
threatened  to  have  the  door  broken  in, 
and  even  ordered  a  convert  to  force  it 
with  a  crow-bar.  The  Nun  then  opened 
her  door  :  a  search  was  made  and  no  one 
found.  Being  asked  with  whom  she  had 
been  talking,  and  the  why  and  wherefore 
of  the  bed  cracking,  of  the  sighs,  etc., 
she  denied  every  thing. 

But,  matters  going  on  just  the  same  as 
before,  the  rival  Nun,  become  more  atten* 
tive  and  more  inquisitive  than  ever,  con- 
trived to  bore  a  hole  through  the  parti* 
tion,  so  as  to  be  able  to  see  what  was 
going  on  inside  the  cell ;  and  what  should 
she  see  but  an  elegant  youth  lying  with 
the  Nun,  and  the  sight  of  whom  she  took 
care  to  let  the  others  enjoy  by  the  same 

240  Daemonialitas 

minatorutn   adacta,  confessa   est  se  cum 
Incubo  consuetudinem  habuisse. 

5.  Quando  igitur  adessent  talia  indicia, 
sicut  in  recitata  historia  intervenerunt , 
posset  utique  in  rigoroso  examine  rea 
constitui;  sine  tamen  ejus  con/essione,  non 
censendum  est  delictum  plene  probatum, 
quantumvis  a  testibus  visas  fuisset  con- 
gressus ;  siquidem  aliquando  accidit,  quod 
Diabolus,  ut  infamiam  alicui  innocenti 
pararet,  prcestigiose  talem  concubitum  re- 
prcesentaverit.  Unde  in  his  casibus  debet 
Judex  Ecclesiasticus  esse  perfecte  ocu- 
latus.     ' 

Demonialitjr  241 

means.  The  charge  was  soon  brought 
before  the  bishop  :  the  guilty  Nun  en- 
deavoured still  to  deny  all;  but,  threat- 
ened with  the  torture,  she. confessed  having 
had  an  intimacy  with  an  Incubus. 

5.  When,  therefore,  indications  are  forth- 
coming, such  as  those  recited  above,  a 
charge  might  be  brought  after  a  searching 
inquiry;  yet,  without  the  confession  of  the 
accused,  the  offence  should  not  be  regarded 
as  fully  proved,  even  if  the  intercourse 
were  testified  by  eye-witnesses;  for  it  some- 
times happens  that,  in  order  to  undo  an 
innocent  female,  the  Devil  feigns  such  in- 
tercourse by  means  of  some  delusion.  In 
those  cases,  the  Ecclesiastical  Judge  must 
consequently  trust  but  his  own  eyes. 

242  Daemon  ialitas 


Quantum  adpoenas  Dxmonialitatis,  nulla 
lex  civilis,  aut  canonica,  quam  legerim, 
reperitur,  quce  poenam  sanciat  contra  cri- 
men hujusmodi.  Tamen,  quia  crimen  hoc 
supponit  pactum,  ac  societatem  cum  Dce- 
mone,  ac  apostasiamafide,  ultra  veneficia, 
atque  alia  infinita  propemodum  damna, 
quce  a  Malejicis  in/eruntur,  regulariter,  ex- 
tra Italiam,  suspendio  et  incendio  punitur. 
In  Italia  autem,  rarissime  traduntur  hu- 
jusmodi Malejici  ab  Inquisitoribus  Curice 
sceculari.   ' 

Demoniality  243 


As  regards  the  penalties  applicable  to 
Demoniality,  there  is  no  law  that  I  know 
of,  either  civil  or  canonical,  wich  inflicts 
a  punishment  for  a  crime  of  that  kind. 
Since,  however,  such  a  crime  implies  a  com- 
pact and  fellowship  with  the  Demon,  and 
apostasy  of  the  faith,  not  to  speak  of  the 
malefices  and  other  almost  numberless 
outrages  perpetrated  by  Sorcerers,  as  a 
rule  it  is  punished,  out  of  Italy,  by  the  gal- 
lows and  the  stake.  But,  in  Italy,  it  is 
but  very  seldom  that  offenders  of  that 
kind  are  delivered  up  by  the  Inquisitors 
to  the  secular  power. 


Father  Ludovico  Maria  Sinistrari,  of  the 
Order  of  Reformed  Minors  of  the  strict 
Observance  of  St.  Francis,  was  born  in 
Ameno,  a  small  town  of  the  district  of 
St.  Julius,  in  the  diocese  of  Novara,  on  the 
26th  of  February  1622.  He  received  a  li- 
beral education  and  went  through  a  course 
of  humanities  in  Pavia,  where,  in  the 
year  1647,  he  entered  the  Order  of  Fran- 
ciscans. Devoting  himself  henceforward  to 
tuition,  he  was  first  a  professor  of  Philoso- 
phy ;  he  then,  during  fifteen  successive 
years,  taught  Theology  in  the  same  town, 
amidst  a  numerous  concourse  of  students 
attracted  from  all  parts  of  Europe  by  his 
high  repute.  His  sermons  preached  in  the 
principal  cities  of  Italy,  at  the  same  time 
as  they  caused  his  eloquence  to  be  admir- 

I.  This  Notice  is  an  extract  from  tome  I  of  the  com- 
plete works  of  Father  Sinistrari,  Romce,  i'/53. 

246  Biographical   Notice 

ed,  were  productive  of  the  most  happy 
results  for  piety.  Equally  endeared  to  the 
World  and  to  Religion,  he  had  been  fa- 
voured by  nature  with  the  most  brilliant 
gifts  :  square  frame,  high  stature,  open 
countenance,  broad  forehead,  sparkling 
eyes,  high-coloured  complexion,  pleasant 
conversation  replete  with  sallies  of  wit ' ; 
more  valuable  still,  he  was  in  possession 
of  the  gifts  of  grace,  through  which  he  was 
enabled  to  sustain,  with  unconquerable 
resignation,  the  assaults  of  an  arthritical 
disease  he  was  subject  to;  he  was,  more- 
over, remarkable  for  his  meekness,  can- 
dour and  absolute  submission  to  the  rules 
of  his  Order.  A  man  of  all  sciences*,  he 
had  learnt  foreign  languages  without  any 
master,  and  often,  in  the  general  Meet- 
ings of  his  Order,  held  in  Rome,  he  sup- 
ported, in  public,  theses  de  omni  scibili. 
He,  however,  addicted  himself  more  parti- 
cularly to  the  study  of  Civil  and  Canon 
laws.  In  Rome  he  filled  the  appointment 
of  Consulter  to  the  supreme  Tribunal  of 
the    Holy-Inquisition;  was  some  time  Vi- 

1.  Quadrato  corpore,  statura  procera,  facie  liberal!, 
fronte  spatiosa,  oculis  rutilantibus,  colore  vivido,  jucun- 
dae  conversationis,  ac  lepidorum  salium. 

2.  Omnium  scientiarum  vir. 

Biographical  Notice         247 

car  general  of  the  Archbishop  of  Avignon, 
and  then  Theologian  attached  to  the 
Archbishop  of  Milan.  In  the  year  1688, 
charged  by  the  general  Meeting  of  Fran- 
ciscans with  the  compilation  of  the  statu- 
tes of  the  Order,  he  performed  this  task  in 
his  treatise  entitled  Practica  criminalis 
Minorum  illustrata.  He  died  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  1701,  on  the  6th  of  March,  at 
the  age  of  seventy-nine  \ 

I.  The  complete  works  of  P.  Slnistrari  (Rome,  Gian- 
nini,  1753-1754,3  vol.  in-folio )  include  the  following 
books  :  Practica  criminalis  Minorum  illustrata,  -- 
Formularium  criminate,  —  De  incorrigibilium  expul- 
sione  ab  Ordinibus  Regularibus,  —  De  Delictis  et 
Poenis,  lo  which  should  be  added  the  present  work  : 
De  Dcemonialitate,  published  for  the  first  time  in  the 
year  1875. 


Preface v 

Demoniality  :  origin  of  the  word.  — 
Wherein  that  crime  differs  from  those 
of  Bestiality  and  Sodomy.  —  Opinion 
of  St  Thomas N-"*  i  to  8  i 

Material  intercourse  with  Incubi  and 
Succubi  is  not  a  thing  of  imagination  ; 
testimony  of  St  Austin.  N'"^  9  and  10.       i5 

Wizards  and  Witches;  their  relations 
with  the  Devil;  ceremonials  of  their 
profession N"  11  to  23.      21 

Artifices  resorted  to  by  the  Devil  for  the 
assumption  of  a  body N'  24.       3i 

Incubi  do  not  assail  but  women.  N''26.       35 

Goblins  have  no  dread  of  exorcisms.  N'  27.       3j 

Humorous  story  of  signora  Hieronyma  : 
the  enchanted  repast N"*  28.       Sy 

Men  begotten  by  Incubi :  Romulus  and 
Remus,  Plato ,  Alexander  the  Great, 
Caesar-Augustus,  Merlin  the  Enchan- 
ter, Martin  Luther.  —  The  Antechrist 
to  be  born  of  an  Incubus  .  .  .  N'  3o.       53 

Incubi  are  not  pure  spirits  :  they  beget, 
and  therefore  have  a  body  of  their  own. 
—  Remark  concerning  Giants.  N'^  3i 
to 33.       57 

Angels  are  not  all  pure  spirits  :  decision 
to  that  effect  of  the  second  Council  of 
Nicea N'"  37.       71 

2  5o  Index 


Existence  of  rational  creatures  or  ani- 
mals other  than  man,  and  endowed, 
like  him,  with  a  body  and  a  soul.  N""^  38 
to 43.       85 

Wherein  do  those  animals  differ  from 
man?  What  their  origin?  Do  they  all 
descend  from  one  individual,  as  men 
descend  from  Adam?  Is  there  between 
them  a  distinction  of  the  sexes?  What 
are  their  manners,  laws,  social  cus- 
toms ? Ni's  44  to  5o.       87 

What  are  the  shape  and  organisation  of 
their  body?  A  comparison  drawn  from 
the  composition  of  wine.  N^'^Si  to  56.       95 

Are  those  animals  subject  to  diseases, 
to  physical  and  moral  infirmities,  to 
death? N^**  57  and  58.     107 

Are  they  born  in  the  original  sin?  Have 
they  been  redeemed  by  Jesus-Christ, 
and  are  they  capable  of  beatitude  and 
damnation? N'^  61  and  62.     119 

Proofs  of  their  existence.  N^^^  65  to  70.     i23 

Story  of  an  Incubus  and  of  a  young 
Nun Nr  71.     139 

Story  of  a  young  deacon N""  72.     145 

Incubi  are  affected  by  material  substan- 
ces :  they  therefore  participate  of  the 
matter  of  those  substances..   .  N^"  73.      149 

Instance  drawn  from  the  history  of  To- 
bit  :  ejection  of  the  Incubus  which 
vexed     Sarah;    cure    of   old   Tobias. 

N''^  74  to  76.     i5i 

St  Anthony  falls  in  with  a  Faun  in  the 
wilderness  :  their  conversation.  N""  77 
to 84.     161 

Index  25 1 


Other  proofs  of  the  corporeity  of  Incubi, 
especially  the  Manna  of  the  Hebrews 
or  Bread  of  Angels.  .   .  N""*  90  to  g5.     179 

In  what  sense  are  to  be  understood  the 
words  of  Christ :  «  Other  sheep  I  have 
which  are  not  of  this  fold?  ^y  Apollo's 
address  to  the  Emperor  Augustus  : 
the  end  of  the  Gods    .  .  N'^  96  to  loi      igi 

«  The  Great  Pan  is  dead  »,  or  the  death 
of  Christ  announced  to  Fauns,  Syl- 
vans   and    Satyrs   :    their   bewailing. 

N""  102.     2o3 

Solving  of  the  problem  :  How  caVi  a 
woman  be  impregnated  by  an  Incu- 
bus? —  Comparison  of  Giants  with 
mules N"  104  and  io5     207 

Wherein  lies  the  generating  virtue; 
why  no  more  Giants  are  born.  Luxu- 
ria  in  humido N''^  106  to  iii.     211 

Appreciation  of  the  crime  of  Demonia- 
lity  :  i"  committed  with  the  Devil; 
2°  committed  with  an  Incubus.  N"  112 
to 114     219 

Is  Demonialily  more  grievous  than  Bes- 
tiality? —  Conclusion.  .   .   .  N^"  ii5.     228 

Appendix 227 

Biographical  Notice 245 




P...,  Friday  (8  October  iSyb). 


MoNS.  Isidore  Liseux, 


/  have  gone  through  the  work  you  sent  me  yester- 
day, and  have,  indeed,  been  satisfied  tvith  the  edition; 
the  time  has  not  yet  arrived  for  me  to  give  my  opi- 
nion on'  the  value  of  the  work  itself  Here  you  would 
have  met  with  no  other  works  of  the  Rev.  Father 
Sinistrari  of  Ameno  than  his  book:  Practica  crimi- 
nal is  Minorum  ;  De  Deiictis  et  Pcenis  is  to  be  found, 
I  believe,  in  another  of  our  convents ;  but  you  would 
have  been  given  a  most  welcome  reception. 

I  believe  that  Des  Grieux  can  hardly  have  resided 
in  the  present  St-Sulpice,  which  dates  but  from  the 

year  1816 So  far  as  a  superficial  glance  has 

enabled  me  to  ascertain,  there  are  some  other  mis- 
takes; but,  altogether,  the  work  is  a  good  one,  and 
you  may  accept  of  the  congratulations  of 

Your  very  little  servant, 
Fr.  A... 

m.  p. 
Convent  of  Capuchins,  rue  .... 

Paris,  imprimerie  D.  Jouaust,  rue  Saint-Honore,  338. 

Isidore  LISEUX,  Libraire-Editeur 

Rue  Bonaparte,  n°  2,  Paris 


AU    I^""  AVRIL    1879 


Ouvrages  curieux,  rares  ou  inedits, 
tires  cl  petit  nombre  siir  papier  de  Hollande. 



SINISTRARI  (Le  R.  P.).  De  la  Demonia- 
lite  et  des  animaux  Incubes  et  Succubes,  pu- 
blic pour  la  premiere  fois,  d'apres  le  manu- 
scrit  original  decouvert  a  Londres  en  1872, 
et  traduit  du  Latin  par  Isidore  Liseux  ;  avec 
le  texte  en  regard 5  fr. 

VALLA  (Laurent).  La  Donation  de  Con- 
jfantin,  premier  titre  du  pouvoir  temporel  des 

Papes,  ou  il  est  prouve  que  cette  Donation 
n'a  jamais  existe,  et  que  I'Acte  attribue  a 
Constantin  est  Toeuvre  d'un  faussaire.  Tra- 
duit  en  Franjais  pour  la  premiere  fois  ct  pre'- 
cede  d'une  e'tude  historique  par  Alcide  Bon- 
neau,  avec  le  texte  Latin lofr, 

leur  nombre,  celuy  des  religieux  et  des  reli- 
gieuses,  ce  dont  ils  subsistent  et  a  quoy  ils 
servent  (xvii®  siecle) 2  fr. 

HUTTEN  (Ulrich  de).  Julius,  dialogue 
entre  Saint  Pierre  et  le  Pape  Jules  II  a  la 
porte  du  Paradis;  traduction  nouvelle  par 
Edmond  Thion,  texte  Latin  en  regard.  3  fr.  5o 

LUTHER.  La  Conference  entre  Luther  et 
/eDi(af^/e  au  sujet  dela  Messe 4fr. 

THEODORE  DE  BEZE.  Epitre  de  maitre 
Benoit  Passavant ;  traduit  pour  la  premiere 
fois  du  Latin  macaronique  de  Theodore  de 
Beze,  par  Isidore  Liseux,  avec  le  texte  en 
regard 3  fr.  5o 

PASSE  VEN7  PARISIEN  respondant  d 
Pasquin  Romain  :  De  la  vie  de  ceux  qui  sont 
alle^  demourer  a  Geneve;  faict  en  forme  de 
Dialogue  (i556) 3  fr.  5o 

—  3  — 


LA  MOTHE  LE  VAYER.  Soliloques  scep- 
tiques 2  fr.  5o 

POGGE.  Un  vieillard  doit-il  se  marier? 
traduit  par  Alcide  Bonneau 3  fr. 

POGGE.  Les  Bains  de  Bade  au  xv^  siecle, 
scene  de  moeurs  de  I'age  d'or;  traduit  en 
Fran9ais  pour  la  premiere  fois  par  Antony 
Meray 2  fr. 

ERASME.  La  Civilite  puerile,  traduction 
nouvelle,  texte  Latin  en  regard,  par  Alcide 
Bonneau 4fr. 

HENRI  ESTIENNE.  La  Foire  de  Franc- 
fort  (Exposition  universelle  et  permanente 
au  xvi°  siecle) ;  traduit  pour  la  premiere  fois 
par  Isidore  Liseux,  texte  Latin  en  regard.  4  fr. 

GE^NER  (J.-M.).  Socrate  et  V Amour  Grec 
(Socrates  sanctus  liaiht^txa--^^) ;  traduit  en 
Franfais  pour  la  premiere  fois,  texte  Latin 
en  regard,  par  Alcide  Bonneau.  .  .     3  fr.  5o 

TACITE.  La  Germanic,  traduction  entie- 
rement  nouvelle,  texte  Latin  en  regard,  par 
E.-P.  Dubois-Guchan.  .  •. 3  fr.  5o 

—  4  — 

ULRICH  DE  HUTTEN.  Arminius,  dia- 
logue, traduit  pour  la  premiere  fois  par  Ed- 
mond  Thion,  texte  Latin  en  regard.  .     2  fr. 


pour  les  induire  a  vivre  en  paix  a  I'advenir 
(1576) I  fr. 


DU  BELLAY  (Joachim).  Divers  jeux  rus- 
tiques 3  fr.  5o 

DU    BELLAY    (Joachim).    Les   Regrets. 

3  fr.  5o 
BONNEFONS  (Jean).  Pancharis.  .  .     4fr. 

BOULMIER  (Joseph).  Villanelles,  avec 
eau-forte  de  Lalauze 5  fr, 

Gontes  et  Nouvelles 

ARISTENET.  Les  ^pistres  amoureuses 
d'Aristenet,  tournees  de  Grec  en  Francois 
par  Gyre  Foucault,  sieur  de  la  Coudriere 
(1597);  avec  notice  par  A.  P.-Malassis.     5  fr. 

BOCCAGE.  Decameron,  traduit  par  An- 
toine  Le  Ma9on,  6  vol 3o  fr. 

POGGE.  Faceties,   2  vol.  (public  a  20  fr.) 


^  5  - 

L'ABBE  FAVRE.  Histoire  de  Jean-Vont- 
pris,  conte  Languedocien  du  xviii*^  siecle, 
traduit  et  precede  d'une  notice  par  Jules 
Troubat 3  fr. 

VIVANT  DENON.  Point  de  Lendemain, 
conte  dedie  a  la  Reine,  avec  fleurons  dessines 
parMarillier;  notice  par  A.  P.-Malassis  (public 
a  4  ir.) Epuise. 

CASTI.  La  Papesse.  . lo  fr. 

Philolo^ie,  Histoire  litt6raire 

GABRIEL  NAUDE,  Parisien.  Advis  pour 
dresser  une  Biblioth^que 4  fr. 

LA  MOTHE  LE  VAYER.  Hexameron 
rustique  (public  a  3  fr.  5o) Epuise. 

GRIMAREST.  La  Vie  de  M*"  de  Moli^re; 
notice   par  A.   P.-Malassis   (public  a  5  fr.) 


celles  de  sa  femme,  avec  notes  par  Ch.-L.  Li- 
vet  (public  a  6  fr.) Epuise. 

MOLIERE  JUGE  par  ses  contemporains ; 
notice  par  A.  P.-Malassis 4  fr. 

(contre  Moliere),  avec  une  note  sur  les  Enne- 
mis  de  Moliere,  par  Ch.-L.  Livet.  .  .     to  fr. 


ESTIENNE  (Henri).  Apologiepour  Hiro- 
dote,  avec  Introduction  et  Notes  par  P.  Ristel- 
huber,  2  vol 2  5  fr, 

SINISTRARI  (Le  R.  P.).  De  la  Demonia- 
lite  et  des  animaux  Incubes  et  Succubes, 
premiere  edition  (publiee  a  10  fr.).     Epuise. 

LOISELEUR.  Les  Points  obscurs  de  la  vie 
de  Molidre  (public  a  12  fr.) Epuise. 


de  sa  femme,  avec  Preface  et  Notes  par  Ch.- 
L.  Livet 12  fr. 


SAINT-PIERRE  (Bernardin  de).  Paul  et 
Virginie,  avec  huit  eaux-iortes  de  Lalauze. 

25  fr. 
—  Les  huit  eaux-fortes   tire'es  a  part,   sur 

papier  de  Chine  ou  de  Hollande.  .     10  fr. 

POGGE.  Facdties,  deuxieme  edition  com- 
plete, avec  le  texte  Latin,  2  vol.  ...     i5  fr. 

—  7  — 

PIEDAGNEL.  -Am/,  poesies,  avec un  fron- 
tispice  de  Giacomelli,  grave  a  Teau-forte  par 
Lalauze. •     5  fr. 

BOULMIER  (Joseph).  Villanelles,  pre- 
miere edition  (avec  eau-forte  de  Lalauze).  5  fr. 

BOUTMY  (Eugene).  Dictionnaire  de  la 
Langue  verte  typographiqiie 3  fr. 

SINISTRARI.  Demoniality^  or  Incubi  and 
Succubi,  now  first  translated  into  English, 
with  the  Latin  text. 

POGGIO.  The  ((F^ce/Zi^)),  or  Jocose  Tales, 
now  first  translated  into  English,  with  the 
Latin  text. 

TROUBAT  (Jules).  Plume  et  Pinceau,  etu- 
des de  litterature  et  d'art 3  fr. 

DESMARETS.  L'ancienne  Jonction  de 
VAngleterre  a  la  France,  ou  le  Detroit  de 
Calais,  avec  deux  cartes  topographiques.  3  fr. 

Contre  le  prix  en  Mandat  de  Poste. 

Paris.  —  Imp.  Motteroz,  rue  du  Dragon,  3i. 

202  Main  Library 








JAN    81086 

■y  lilKDEC  3^>B 


APR  '     1983 

V.  OFCftUF.,  EERK 


MAY  22  ^^( 

lUG  ?.  8  ^002 

«  D    ^^OD^ 



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